Background: The molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of prostate cancer during hormonal therapy have remained poorly understood. In this study, we developed a new strategy for the identification of differentially expressed genes in hormone-refractory human prostate cancer by use of a combination of complementary DNA (cDNA) and tissue microarray technologies. Methods: Differences in gene expression between hormone- refractory CWR22R prostate cancer xenografts (human prostate cancer transplanted into nude mice) and a xenograft of the parental, hormone- sensitive CWR22 strain were analyzed by use of cDNA microarray technology. To validate the data from cDNA microarrays on clinical prostate cancer specimens, a tissue microarray of specimens from 26 prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 208 primary prostate cancers, and 30 hormone- refractory local recurrences was constructed and used for immunohistochemical detection of protein expression. Results: Among 5184 genes surveyed with cDNA microarray technology, expression of 37 (0.7%) was increased more than twofold in the hormone-refractory CWR22R xenografts compared with the CWR22 xenograft; expression of 135(2.6%) genes was reduced by more than 50%. The genes encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) and 27- kd heat-shock protein (HSP27) were among the most consistently overexpressed genes in the CWR22R tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays demonstrated high expression of IGFBP2 protein in 100% of the hormone-refractory clinical tumors, in 36% of the primary tumors, and in 0% of the benign prostatic specimens (two-sided P = .0001). Overexpression of HSP27 protein was demonstrated in 31% of the hormone-refractory tumors, in 5% of the primary tumors, and in 0% of the benign prostatic specimens (two-sided P = .0001). Conclusions: The combination of cDNA and tissue microarray technologies enables rapid identification of genes associated with progression of prostate cancer to the hormone-refractory state and may facilitate analysis of the role of the encoded gene products in the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research