Renal electrolyte disorders, acute renal failure, and a variety of chronic renal diseases are common in HIV-infected patients. Glomerular disorders include IgA nephropathy, cryoglobulinemia, amyloidosis, and a lupus-like immune complex glomerulopathy. The most attention has been focused on collapsing glomerulopathy associated with nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal failure, which appears to be unique for patients with HIV/AIDS, called HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and it occurs predominantly in African American patients. Investigations in humans and in a transgenic mouse model reveal direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV and toxic cellular and immunologic processes mediated by HIV glycoproteins as the principal pathophysiology of HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral treatment may be associated with an improved renal outcome and even reversal of kidney disease in some patients. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may avert progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney disease and result in superior patient and kidney survival as compared with untreated patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases