Histologic Evaluation of Regenerative Endodontic Procedures with the Use of Chitosan Scaffolds in Immature Dog Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

Paulo J. Palma, João C. Ramos, João B. Martins, Anibal R Diogenes, Maria H. Figueiredo, Paula Ferreira, Carlos Viegas, João M. Santos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

122 Scopus citations


Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the newly formed tissues after regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) in dogs using either a blood clot (BC) or 2 different formulations of a chitosan hydrogel as scaffolds. Methods Apical periodontitis was induced by inoculating immature teeth with oral plaque in 4 beagle dogs. Teeth (n = 96) were divided into 2 control (n = 20) and 4 test groups (n = 76) according to the treatment: apexification and REPs with BC, sodium hyaluronate:chitosan (HA:CS) scaffolds, or pectin:chitosan (P:CS) scaffolds. All root canals were disinfected with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and a triple antibiotic paste intracanal medicament before evoked bleeding, clot formation, or scaffold placement. Thirteen weeks after treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the jaw blocks harvested for histologic processing, histomorphometric analysis, and statistical analysis. Results The lumens of the root canals were completely filled with mineral trioxide aggregate with evidence of a mineralized apical bridge between the root canal walls in 83% of the samples in the apexification group. Vital vascularized tissue was found in the REP groups; apical closure happened in 66.7% of these treatments, and root growth was detected more often as an increase in thickness (85.6%) than in length (45.6%). The greatest amount of mineralized tissue inside the canal was observed in the BC group, with statistical significance compared with the HA:CS and P:CS groups (P <.05). Further histologic evaluation revealed the presence of apical papilla. Conclusions The addition of chitosan scaffolds to blood in regenerative procedures in dogs did not improve the formation of new mineralized tissues along the root canal walls or the histologic evidence of the regeneration of a pulp-dentin complex.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1279-1287
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • Apexification
  • apical papilla
  • chitosan scaffolds
  • immature permanent tooth
  • regenerative endodontics procedures
  • root canal
  • tissue engineering
  • tissue regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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