Health-related quality of life and social determinants of health following COVID-19 infection in a predominantly Latino population

Kathleen R. Case, Chen Pin Wang, Meredith G. Hosek, Sarah F. Lill, Alexandra B. Howell, Barbara S. Taylor, James Bridges, Daniel J. MacCarthy, Paula Winkler, Joel Tsevat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, more information is needed on its long-term impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social determinants of health (SDoH). The aim of the study was to assess HRQoL and SDoH among a predominantly Latino population of COVID-19 survivors and to compare effects in Latinos versus non-Latinos. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of a survey (in English and Spanish) of COVID-19 survivors from December 2020 to July 2021. The study assessed sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics, and SDoH, consisting of 10 COVID-19—related concerns. The PROMIS-29 + 2 (PROPr) measure, which captures 8 HRQoL domains and a preference-based health utility, was used to assess HRQoL. Bivariate analyses included chi-square tests and t-tests. Generalized linear models were conducted for multivariable analyses. Results: Of 230 respondents (6.3% response rate), the mean [SD] age was 43.1 [14.3] years; 83.0% were Latino; the mean [SD] time since diagnosis was 8.1 [3.2] months; and 12.6% had a history of hospitalization with COVID-19. HRQoL scores were slightly worse than population norms on all domains, especially anxiety; the mean [SD] PROPr health utility was 0.36 [0.25]. Domain scores were similar by ethnicity except for cognitive function—abilities, where scores were lower in Latinos. Multivariable analyses revealed that: (1) financial concerns were associated with worse health utility, as well as worse scores on all 8 PROMIS domains; (2) interpersonal conflict was associated with worse health utility and worse scores on 6 of the 8 PROMIS domains (anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social function, and pain interference); and (3) Latino ethnicity was only associated with 1 PROMIS domain (cognitive function—abilities) after controlling for covariates. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is associated with HRQoL decrements long after the acute infection, and financial concerns and interpersonal conflict are particularly associated with worse HRQoL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number72
JournalJournal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Health disparities
  • Latinos
  • Long COVID
  • PROMIS-29 + 2
  • Patient-reported outcomes
  • Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19
  • Quality of life
  • Social determinants of health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics


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