For prostate cancer, we review racial differences in incidence, androgen pathways, growth factors, tumor location, rate of definitive treatment, and outcomes. We review the effect of race on risk-stratification and discuss studies of active surveillance in the African American population. For bladder cancer, race- and gender- associated differences in incidence, sex hormone pathways. For renal cell carcinoma, disparities in incidence, genetic factors, tumor pathology, time to presentation, and disease specific survival have been observed. We evaluate the impact of race and ethnicity on tumor pathology and discuss gaps in our current understanding of renal cell carcinoma pathogenesis.
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