Gynecomastia: Evaluation and treatment recommendations for primary care providers

Nedim Cakan, Deepak Kamat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Gynecomastia is defined as excessive development of the breast in boys. It is common in neonates and adolescents. Although in most cases this is a transient phenomenon, it might lead to significant social impediments such as decreased participation in physical education because of embarrassment. A primary care provider should be able to diagnose a false gynecomastia, a physiologic gynecomastia, and a gynecomastia with underlying pathology by taking good history, performing a thorough physical examination, and checking few screening laboratory tests. In most cases with physiologic gynecomastia, just reassurance and close follow-up is sufficient; however, psychologic counseling and surgical intervention may be required in few selected cases of physiologic gynecomastia. Suspected cases with underlying pathologic causes should be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist for further evaluation and management. Treatment of underlying causes should resolve the gynecomastia in those patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)487-490
Number of pages4
JournalClinical Pediatrics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Breasts
  • Gynecomastia
  • Puberty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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