Purpose Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an urgent public health problem and disproportionately affects Mexican Americans. The gut microbiome contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes; however, no studies have examined this association in Mexican-Americans. The objective of this study was to compare gut microbiome composition between Mexican-Americans with and without T2DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of volunteers from San Antonio, TX. Subjects were 18 years or older and self-identified as Mexican American. Subjects were grouped by prior T2DM diagnosis. Eligible subjects attended a clinic visit to provide demographic and medical information. Thereafter, subjects recorded their dietary intake for three days and collected a stool sample on the fourth day. Stool 16s rRNA sequences were classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) via the mothur bayesian classifier and referenced to the Greengenes database. Shannon diversity and bacterial taxa relative abundance were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Beta diversity was estimated using Bray-Curtis indices and compared between groups using PERMANOVA. Results Thirty-seven subjects were included, 14 (38%) with diabetes and 23 (62%) without diabetes. Groups were well-matched by body mass index and comorbid conditions. Shannon diversity was not significantly different between those with and without T2DM (3.26 vs. 3.31; p = 0.341). Beta diversity was not significantly associated with T2DM diagnosis (p = 0.201). The relative abundance of the most common bacterial phyla and families did not significantly differ between groups; however, 16 OTUs were significantly different between groups. Conclusions Although alpha diversity was not significantly different between diabetic and non-diabetic Mexican Americans, the abundance of certain bacterial taxa were significantly different between groups.
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