Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1

Daniel J. Klionsky, Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz, Sara Abdelfatah, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Asghar Abdoli, Steffen Abel, Hagai Abeliovich, Marie H. Abildgaard, Yakubu Princely Abudu, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Iannis E. Adamopoulos, Khosrow Adeli, Timon E. Adolph, Annagrazia Adornetto, Elma Aflaki, Galila Agam, Anupam Agarwal, Bharat B. Aggarwal, Maria Agnello, Patrizia AgostinisJaved N. Agrewala, Alexander Agrotis, Patricia V. Aguilar, S. Tariq Ahmad, Zubair M. Ahmed, Ulises Ahumada-Castro, Sonja Aits, Shu Aizawa, Yunus Akkoc, Tonia Akoumianaki, Hafize Aysin Akpinar, Ahmed M. Al-Abd, Lina Al-Akra, Abeer Al-Gharaibeh, Moulay A. Alaoui-Jamali, Simon Alberti, Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez, Cristiano Alessandri, Muhammad Ali, M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari, Saeb Aliwaini, Javad Alizadeh, Eugènia Almacellas, Alexandru Almasan, Alicia Alonso, Guillermo D. Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C. Altieri, Élida M.C. Álvarez, Sara Alves, Cristine Alves da Costa, Mazen M. Alzaharna, Marialaura Amadio, Consuelo Amantini, Cristina Amaral, Susanna Ambrosio, Amal O. Amer, Veena Ammanathan, Zhenyi An, Stig U. Andersen, Shaida A. Andrabi, Magaiver Andrade-Silva, Allen M. Andres, Sabrina Angelini, David Ann, Uche C. Anozie, Mohammad Y. Ansari, Pedro Antas, Adam Antebi, Zuriñe Antón, Tahira Anwar, Lionel Apetoh, Nadezda Apostolova, Toshiyuki Araki, Yasuhiro Araki, Kohei Arasaki, Wagner L. Araújo, Jun Araya, Catherine Arden, Maria Angeles Arévalo, Sandro Arguelles, Esperanza Arias, Jyothi Arikkath, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R. Ariosa, Darius Armstrong-James, Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin, Angeles Aroca, Daniela S. Arroyo, Ivica Arsov, Rubén Artero, Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro, Michael Aschner, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Osnat Ashur-Fabian, Atanas G. Atanasov, Alicia K. Au, Patrick Auberger, Holger W. Auner, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Yenniffer Ávalos, Sanja Aveic, Célia Alexandra Aveleira, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Yucel Aydin, Scott Ayton, Srinivas Ayyadevara, Maria Azzopardi, Misuzu Baba, Jonathan M. Backer, Steven K. Backues, Dong Hun Bae, Ok Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H. Baehrecke, Ahruem Baek, Seung Hoon Baek, Sung Hee Baek, Giacinto Bagetta, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xiyuan Bai, Yidong Bai, Nandadulal Bairagi, Shounak Baksi, Teresa Balbi, Cosima T. Baldari, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Maria Ballester, Salma Balazadeh, Rena Balzan, Rina Bandopadhyay, Sreeparna Banerjee, Sulagna Banerjee, Ágnes Bánréti, Yan Bao, Mauricio S. Baptista, Alessandra Baracca, Cristiana Barbati, Ariadna Bargiela, Daniela Barilà, Peter G. Barlow, Sami J. Barmada, Esther Barreiro, George E. Barreto, Jiri Bartek, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolome, Gaurav R. Barve, Suresh H. Basagoudanavar, Diane C. Bassham, Robert C. Bast, Alakananda Basu, Henri Batoko, Isabella Batten, Etienne E. Baulieu, Bradley L. Baumgarner, Jagadeesh Bayry, Rupert Beale, Isabelle Beau, Florian Beaumatin, Luiz R.G. Bechara, George R. Beck, Michael F. Beers, Jakob Begun, Christian Behrends, Georg M.N. Behrens, Roberto Bei, Eloy Bejarano, Shai Bel, Christian Behl, Amine Belaid, Naïma Belgareh-Touzé, Cristina Bellarosa, Francesca Belleudi, Melissa Belló Pérez, Raquel Bello-Morales, Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran, Sebastián Beltran, Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook, Mykolas Bendorius, Bruno A. Benitez, Irene Benito-Cuesta, Julien Bensalem, Martin W. Berchtold, Sabina Berezowska, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Andreas Bergmann, Laura Berliocchi, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Amélie Bernard, Lionel Berthoux, Cagri G. Besirli, Sebastien Besteiro, Virginie M. Betin, Rudi Beyaert, Jelena S. Bezbradica, Kiran Bhaskar, Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova, Resham Bhattacharya, Sujoy Bhattacharya, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Sujit Kumar Bhutia, Lanrong Bi, Xiaolin Bi, Trevor J. Biden, Krikor Bijian, Viktor A. Billes, Nadine Binart, Claudia Bincoletto, Asa B. Birgisdottir, Geir Bjorkoy, Gonzalo Blanco, Ana Blas-Garcia, Janusz Blasiak, Robert Blomgran, Klas Blomgren, Janice S. Blum, Emilio Boada-Romero, Mirta Boban, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Philippe Boeuf, Barry Boland, Pascale Bomont, Paolo Bonaldo, Srinivasa Reddy Bonam, Laura Bonfili, Juan S. Bonifacino, Brian A. Boone, Martin D. Bootman, Matteo Bordi, Christoph Borner, Beat C. Bornhauser, Gautam Borthakur, Jürgen Bosch, Santanu Bose, Luis M. Botana, Juan Botas, Chantal M. Boulanger, Michael E. Boulton, Mathieu Bourdenx, Benjamin Bourgeois, Nollaig M. Bourke, Guilhem Bousquet, Patricia Boya, Peter V. Bozhkov, Luiz H.M. Bozi, Tolga O. Bozkurt, Doug E. Brackney, Christian H. Brandts, Ralf J. Braun, Gerhard H. Braus, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, José M. Bravo-San Pedro, Patrick Brest, Marie Agnès Bringer, Alfredo Briones-Herrera, V. Courtney Broaddus, Peter Brodersen, Jeffrey L. Brodsky, Steven L. Brody, Paola G. Bronson, Jeff M. Bronstein, Carolyn N. Brown, Rhoderick E. Brown, Patricia C. Brum, John H. Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Daniele Bruno, Robert J. Bryson-Richardson, Cecilia Bucci, Carmen Buchrieser, Marta Bueno, Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina, Simone Buraschi, Shilpa Buch, J. Ross Buchan, Erin M. Buckingham, Hikmet Budak, Mauricio Budini, Geert Bultynck, Florin Burada, Joseph R. Burgoyne, M. Isabel Burón, Victor Bustos, Sabrina Büttner, Elena Butturini, Aaron Byrd, Isabel Cabas, Sandra Cabrera-Benitez, Ken Cadwell, Jingjing Cai, Lu Cai, Qian Cai, Montserrat Cairó, Jose A. Calbet, Guy A. Caldwell, Kim A. Caldwell, Jarrod A. Call, Riccardo Calvani, Ana C. Calvo, Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera, Niels O.S. Camara, Jacques H. Camonis, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Edward M. Campbell, François Xavier Campbell-Valois, Silvia Campello, Ilaria Campesi, Juliane C. Campos, Olivier Camuzard, Jorge Cancino, Danilo Candido de Almeida, Laura Canesi, Isabella Caniggia, Barbara Canonico, Carles Cantí, Bin Cao, Michele Caraglia, Beatriz Caramés, Evie H. Carchman, Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Cesar Cardenas, Luis Cardenas, Sandra M. Cardoso, Jennifer S. Carew, Georges F. Carle, Gillian Carleton, Silvia Carloni, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia A. Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Julian M. Carosi, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Lucie Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, A. Brent Carter, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Magali Casanova, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Chiara Cassioli, Eliseo F. Castillo, Karen Castillo, Sonia Castillo-Lluva, Francesca Castoldi, Marco Castori, Ariel F. Castro, Margarida Castro-Caldas, Javier Castro-Hernandez, Susana Castro-Obregon, Sergio D. Catz, Claudia Cavadas, Federica Cavaliere, Gabriella Cavallini, Maria Cavinato, Maria L. Cayuela, Paula Cebollada Rica, Valentina Cecarini, Francesco Cecconi, Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko, Simone Cenci, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, João J. Cerqueira, Janete M. Cerutti, Davide Cervia, Vildan Bozok Cetintas, Silvia Cetrullo, Han Jung Chae, Andrei S. Chagin, Chee Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Oishee Chakrabarti, Tapas Chakraborty, Trinad Chakraborty, Mounia Chami, Georgios Chamilos, David W. Chan, Edmond Y.W. Chan, Edward D. Chan, H. Y.Edwin Chan, Helen H. Chan, Hung Chan, Matthew T.V. Chan, Yau Sang Chan, Partha K. Chandra, Chih Peng Chang, Chunmei Chang, Hao Chun Chang, Kai Chang, Jie Chao, Tracey Chapman, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Samrat Chatterjee, Shail K. Chaube, Anu Chaudhary, Santosh Chauhan, Edward Chaum, Frédéric Checler, Michael E. Cheetham, Chang Shi Chen, Guang Chao Chen, Jian Fu Chen, Liam L. Chen, Leilei Chen, Lin Chen, Mingliang Chen, Mu Kuan Chen, Ning Chen, Quan Chen, Ruey Hwa Chen, Shi Chen, Wei Chen, Weiqiang Chen, Xin Ming Chen, Xiong Wen Chen, Xu Chen, Yan Chen, Ye Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu Jen Chen, Yue Qin Chen, Zhefan Stephen Chen, Zhi Chen, Zhi Hua Chen, Zhijian J. Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Hanhua Cheng, Jun Cheng, Shi Yuan Cheng, Wei Cheng, Xiaodong Cheng, Xiu Tang Cheng, Yiyun Cheng, Zhiyong Cheng, Zhong Chen, Heesun Cheong, Jit Kong Cheong, Boris V. Chernyak, Sara Cherry, Chi Fai Randy Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, King Ho Cheung, Eric Chevet, Richard J. Chi, Alan Kwok Shing Chiang, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Nathalia Chica, Susanna Chiocca, Mario Chiong, Shih Hwa Chiou, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Valerio Chiurchiù, Dong Hyung Cho, Seong Kyu Choe, Augustine M.K. Choi, Mary E. Choi, Kamalika Roy Choudhury, Norman S. Chow, Charleen T. Chu, Jason P. Chua, John Jia En Chua, Hyewon Chung, Kin Pan Chung, Seockhoon Chung, So Hyang Chung, Yuen Li Chung, Valentina Cianfanelli, Iwona A. Ciechomska, Mariana Cifuentes, Laura Cinque, Sebahattin Cirak, Mara Cirone, Michael J. Clague, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Eliana M. Coccia, Patrice Codogno, Ehud Cohen, Mickael M. Cohen, Tania Colasanti, Fiorella Colasuonno, Robert A. Colbert, Anna Colell, Miodrag Čolić, Nuria S. Coll, Mark O. Collins, María I. Colombo, Daniel A. Colón-Ramos, Lydie Combaret, Sergio Comincini, Márcia R. Cominetti, Antonella Consiglio, Andrea Conte, Fabrizio Conti, Viorica Raluca Contu, Mark R. Cookson, Kevin M. Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Dale P. Corkery, Nils Cordes, Katia Cortese, Maria do Carmo Costa, Sarah Costantino, Paola Costelli, Ana Coto-Montes, Peter J. Crack, Jose L. Crespo, Alfredo Criollo, Valeria Crippa, Riccardo Cristofani, Tamas Csizmadia, Antonio Cuadrado, Bing Cui, Jun Cui, Yixian Cui, Yong Cui, Emmanuel Culetto, Andrea C. Cumino, Andrey V. Cybulsky, Mark J. Czaja, Stanislaw J. Czuczwar, Stefania D’Adamo, Marcello D’Amelio, Daniela D’Arcangelo, Andrew C. D’Lugos, Gabriella D’Orazi, James A. da Silva, Hormos Salimi Dafsari, Ruben K. Dagda, Yasin Dagdas, Maria Daglia, Xiaoxia Dai, Yun Dai, Yuyuan Dai, Jessica Dal Col, Paul Dalhaimer, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tobias Dallenga, Guillaume Dalmasso, Markus Damme, Ilaria Dando, Nico P. Dantuma, April L. Darling, Hiranmoy Das, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Santosh K. Dasari, Srikanta Dash, Oliver Daumke, Adrian N. Dauphinee, Jeffrey S. Davies, Valeria A. Dávila, Roger J. Davis, Tanja Davis, Sharadha Dayalan Naidu, Francesca De Amicis, Karolien De Bosscher, Francesca De Felice, Lucia De Franceschi, Chiara De Leonibus, Mayara G. de Mattos Barbosa, Guido R.Y. De Meyer, Angelo De Milito, Cosimo De Nunzio, Clara De Palma, Mauro De Santi, Claudio De Virgilio, Daniela De Zio, Jayanta Debnath, Brian J. DeBosch, Jean Paul Decuypere, Mark A. Deehan, Gianluca Deflorian, James DeGregori, Benjamin Dehay, Gabriel Del Rio, Joe R. Delaney, Lea M.D. Delbridge, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, M. Victoria Delpino, Francesca Demarchi, Vilma Dembitz, Nicholas D. Demers, Hongbin Deng, Zhiqiang Deng, Joern Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Melvin L. DePamphilis, Channing J. Der, Vojo Deretic, Albert Descoteaux, Laura Devis, Sushil Devkota, Olivier Devuyst, Grant Dewson, Mahendiran Dharmasivam, Rohan Dhiman, Diego di Bernardo, Manlio Di Cristina, Fabio Di Domenico, Pietro Di Fazio, Alessio Di Fonzo, Giovanni Di Guardo, Gianni M. Di Guglielmo, Luca Di Leo, Chiara Di Malta, Alessia Di Nardo, Martina Di Rienzo, Federica Di Sano, George Diallinas, Jiajie Diao, Guillermo Diaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Jared M. Dickinson, Marc Diederich, Mélanie Dieudé, Ivan Dikic, Shiping Ding, Wen Xing Ding, Luciana Dini, Jelena Dinić, Miroslav Dinic, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Marc S. Dionne, Jörg H.W. Distler, Abhinav Diwan, Ian M.C. Dixon, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Ina Dobrinski, Oxana Dobrovinskaya, Radek Dobrowolski, Renwick C.J. Dobson, Jelena Đokić, Serap Dokmeci Emre, Massimo Donadelli, Bo Dong, Xiaonan Dong, Zhiwu Dong, Gerald W. Dorn, Volker Dotsch, Huan Dou, Juan Dou, Moataz Dowaidar, Sami Dridi, Liat Drucker, Ailian Du, Caigan Du, Guangwei Du, Hai Ning Du, Li Lin Du, André du Toit, Shao Bin Duan, Xiaoqiong Duan, Sónia P. Duarte, Anna Dubrovska, Elaine A. Dunlop, Nicolas Dupont, Raúl V. Durán, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath, Sergey A. Dyshlovoy, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Leopold Eckhart, Charles L. Edelstein, Thomas Efferth, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Ludwig Eichinger, Nabil Eid, Tobias Eisenberg, N. Tony Eissa, Sanaa Eissa, Miriam Ejarque, Abdeljabar El Andaloussi, Nazira El-Hage, Shahenda El-Naggar, Anna Maria Eleuteri, Eman S. El-Shafey, Mohamed Elgendy, Aristides G. Eliopoulos, María M. Elizalde, Philip M. Elks, Hans Peter Elsasser, Eslam S. Elsherbiny, Brooke M. Emerling, N. C.Tolga Emre, Christina H. Eng, Nikolai Engedal, Anna Mart Engelbrecht, Agnete S.T. Engelsen, Jorrit M. Enserink, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Mafalda Escobar-Henriques, Eeva Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Makandjou Ola Eusebio, Gemma Fabrias, Cinzia Fabrizi, Antonio Facchiano, Francesco Facchiano, Bengt Fadeel, Claudio Fader, Alex C. Faesen, W. Douglas Fairlie, Alberto Falcó, Bjorn H. Falkenburger, Daping Fan, Jie Fan, Yanbo Fan, Evandro F. Fang, Yanshan Fang, Yognqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Tamar Farfel-Becker, Mathias Faure, Gholamreza Fazeli, Anthony O. Fedele, Arthur M. Feldman, Du Feng, Jiachun Feng, Lifeng Feng, Yibin Feng, Yuchen Feng, Wei Feng, Thais Fenz Araujo, Thomas A. Ferguson, Álvaro F. Fernández, Jose C. Fernandez-Checa, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Alisdair R. Fernie, Anthony W. Ferrante, Alessandra Ferraresi, Merari F. Ferrari, Julio C.B. Ferreira, Susan Ferro-Novick, Antonio Figueras, Riccardo Filadi, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Eduardo Filippi-Chiela, Giuseppe Filomeni, Gian Maria Fimia, Vittorio Fineschi, Francesca Finetti, Steven Finkbeiner, Edward A. Fisher, Paul B. Fisher, Flavio Flamigni, Steven J. Fliesler, Trude H. Flo, Ida Florance, Oliver Florey, Tullio Florio, Erika Fodor, Carlo Follo, Edward A. Fon, Antonella Forlino, Francesco Fornai, Paola Fortini, Anna Fracassi, Alessandro Fraldi, Brunella Franco, Rodrigo Franco, Flavia Franconi, Lisa B. Frankel, Scott L. Friedman, Leopold F. Fröhlich, Gema Frühbeck, Jose M. Fuentes, Yukio Fujiki, Naonobu Fujita, Yuuki Fujiwara, Mitsunori Fukuda, Simone Fulda, Luc Furic, Norihiko Furuya, Carmela Fusco, Michaela U. Gack, Lidia Gaffke, Sehamuddin Galadari, Alessia Galasso, Maria F. Galindo, Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Vincent Galy, Noor Gammoh, Boyi Gan, Ian G. Ganley, Feng Gao, Hui Gao, Minghui Gao, Ping Gao, Shou Jiang Gao, Wentao Gao, Xiaobo Gao, Ana Garcera, Maria Noé Garcia, Verónica E. Garcia, Francisco García-Del Portillo, Vega Garcia-Escudero, Aracely Garcia-Garcia, Marina Garcia-Macia, Diana García-Moreno, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, Patricia García-Sanz, Abhishek D. Garg, Ricardo Gargini, Tina Garofalo, Robert F. Garry, Nils C. Gassen, Damian Gatica, Liang Ge, Wanzhong Ge, Ruth Geiss-Friedlander, Cecilia Gelfi, Pascal Genschik, Ian E. Gentle, Valeria Gerbino, Christoph Gerhardt, Kyla Germain, Marc Germain, David A. Gewirtz, Elham Ghasemipour Afshar, Saeid Ghavami, Alessandra Ghigo, Manosij Ghosh, Georgios Giamas, Claudia Giampietri, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Gary E. Gibson, Spencer B. Gibson, Vanessa Ginet, Edward Giniger, Carlotta Giorgi, Henrique Girao, Stephen E. Girardin, Mridhula Giridharan, Sandy Giuliano, Cecilia Giulivi, Sylvie Giuriato, Julien Giustiniani, Alexander Gluschko, Veit Goder, Alexander Goginashvili, Jakub Golab, David C. Goldstone, Anna Golebiewska, Luciana R. Gomes, Rodrigo Gomez, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Raquel Gomez-Sintes, Qingqiu Gong, Felix M. Goni, Javier González-Gallego, Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez, Rosa A. Gonzalez-Polo, Jose A. Gonzalez-Reyes, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Ing Swie Goping, Marina S. Gorbatyuk, Nikolai V. Gorbunov, Kıvanç Görgülü, Roxana M. Gorojod, Sharon M. Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Cecilia Gotor, Roberta A. Gottlieb, Illana Gozes, Devrim Gozuacik, Martin Graef, Markus H. Gräler, Veronica Granatiero, Daniel Grasso, Joshua P. Gray, Douglas R. Green, Alexander Greenhough, Stephen L. Gregory, Edward F. Griffin, Mark W. Grinstaff, Frederic Gros, Charles Grose, Angelina S. Gross, Florian Gruber, Paolo Grumati, Tilman Grune, Xueyan Gu, Jun Lin Guan, Carlos M. Guardia, Kishore Guda, Flora Guerra, Consuelo Guerri, Prasun Guha, Carlos Guillén, Shashi Gujar, Anna Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Andreas Günther, Anyonya R. Guntur, Chuanyong Guo, Chun Guo, Hongqing Guo, Lian Wang Guo, Ming Guo, Pawan Gupta, Shashi Kumar Gupta, Swapnil Gupta, Veer Bala Gupta, Vivek Gupta, Asa B. Gustafsson, David D. Gutterman, Ranjitha H.B, Annakaisa Haapasalo, James E. Haber, Aleksandra Hać, Shinji Hadano, Anders J. Hafrén, Mansour Haidar, Belinda S. Hall, Gunnel Halldén, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Andrea Hamann, Maho Hamasaki, Weidong Han, Malene Hansen, Phyllis I. . Hanson, Zijian Hao, Masaru Harada, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic, Nirmala Hariharan, Nigil Haroon, James Harris, Takafumi Hasegawa, Noor Hasima Nagoor, Jeffrey A. Haspel, Volker Haucke, Wayne D. Hawkins, Bruce A. Hay, Cole M. Haynes, Soren B. Hayrabedyan, Thomas S. Hays, Congcong He, Qin He, Rong Rong He, You Wen He, Yu Ying He, Yasser Heakal, Alexander M. Heberle, J. Fielding Hejtmancik, Gudmundur Vignir  Helgason, Vanessa Henkel, Marc Herb, Alexander Hergovich, Anna Herman-Antosiewicz, Agustín Hernández, Carlos Hernandez, Sergio Hernandez-Diaz, Virginia Hernandez-Gea, Amaury Herpin, Judit Herreros, Javier H. Hervás, Daniel Hesselson, Claudio Hetz, Volker T. Heussler, Yujiro Higuchi, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A. Hill, William S. Hlavacek, Emmanuel A. Ho, Idy H.T. Ho, Philip Wing Lok Ho, Shu Leong Ho, Wan Yun Ho, G. Aaron Hobbs, Mark Hochstrasser, Peter H.M. Hoet, Daniel Hofius, Paul Hofman, Annika Höhn, Carina I. Holmberg, Jose R. Hombrebueno, Chang Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong, Lora V. Hooper, Thorsten Hoppe, Rastislav Horos, Yujin Hoshida, I. Lun Hsin, Hsin Yun Hsu, Bing Hu, Dong Hu, Li Fang Hu, Ming Chang Hu, Ronggui Hu, Wei Hu, Yu Chen Hu, Zhuo Wei Hu, Fang Hua, Jinlian Hua, Yingqi Hua, Chongmin Huan, Canhua Huang, Chuanshu Huang, Chuanxin Huang, Chunling Huang, Haishan Huang, Kun Huang, Michael L.H. Huang, Rui Huang, Shan Huang, Tianzhi Huang, Xing Huang, Yuxiang Jack Huang, Tobias B. Huber, Virginie Hubert, Christian A. Hubner, Stephanie M. Hughes, William E. Hughes, Magali Humbert, Gerhard Hummer, James H. Hurley, Sabah Hussain, Salik Hussain, Patrick J. Hussey, Martina Hutabarat, Hui Yun Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Antonio Ieni, Fumiyo Ikeda, Yusuke Imagawa, Yuzuru Imai, Carol Imbriano, Masaya Imoto, Denise M. Inman, Ken Inoki, Juan Iovanna, Renato V. Iozzo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Javier E. Irazoqui, Pablo Iribarren, Mohd Ishaq, Makoto Ishikawa, Nestor Ishimwe, Ciro Isidoro, Nahed Ismail, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Eisuke Itakura, Daisuke Ito, Davor Ivankovic, Saška Ivanova, Anand Krishnan V. Iyer, José M. Izquierdo, Masanori Izumi, Marja Jäättelä, Majid Sakhi Jabir, William T. Jackson, Nadia Jacobo-Herrera, Anne Claire Jacomin, Elise Jacquin, Pooja Jadiya, Hartmut Jaeschke, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arjen J. Jakobi, Johan Jakobsson, Bassam Janji, Pidder Jansen-Dürr, Patric J. Jansson, Jonathan Jantsch, Sławomir Januszewski, Alagie Jassey, Steve Jean, Hélène Jeltsch-David, Pavla Jendelova, Andreas Jenny, Thomas E. Jensen, Niels Jessen, Jenna L. Jewell, Jing Ji, Lijun Jia, Rui Jia, Liwen Jiang, Qing Jiang, Richeng Jiang, Teng Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Yu Jiang, Maria Jimenez-Sanchez, Eun Jung Jin, Fengyan Jin, Hongchuan Jin, Li Jin, Luqi Jin, Meiyan Jin, Si Jin, Eun Kyeong Jo, Carine Joffre, Terje Johansen, Gail V.W. Johnson, Simon A. Johnston, Eija Jokitalo, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Leo A.B. Joosten, Joaquin Jordan, Bertrand Joseph, Dianwen Ju, Jeong Sun Ju, Jingfang Ju, Esmeralda Juárez, Delphine Judith, Gábor Juhász, Youngsoo Jun, Chang Hwa Jung, Sung Chul Jung, Yong Keun Jung, Heinz Jungbluth, Johannes Jungverdorben, Steffen Just, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Daniel Kaganovich, Alon Kahana, Renate Kain, Shinjo Kajimura, Maria Kalamvoki, Manjula Kalia, Danuta S. Kalinowski, Nina Kaludercic, Ioanna Kalvari, Joanna Kaminska, Vitaliy O. Kaminskyy, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Keizo Kanasaki, Chanhee Kang, Rui Kang, Sang Sun Kang, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala Devi Kanneganti, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Marc Kantorow, Orsolya Kapuy, Michalis V. Karamouzis, Md Razaul Karim, Parimal Karmakar, Rajesh G. Katare, Masaru Kato, Stefan H.E. Kaufmann, Anu Kauppinen, Gur P. Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Kemal Kazan, Po Yuan Ke, Damien J. Keating, Ursula Keber, John H. Kehrl, Kate E. Keller, Christian W. Keller, Jongsook Kim Kemper, Candia M. Kenific, Oliver Kepp, Stephanie Kermorgant, Andreas Kern, Robin Ketteler, Tom G. Keulers, Boris Khalfin, Hany Khalil, Bilon Khambu, Shahid Y. Khan, Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal, Rekha Khandia, Widuri Kho, Noopur V. Khobrekar, Sataree Khuansuwan, Mukhran Khundadze, Samuel A. Killackey, Dasol Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Do Hyung Kim, Dong Eun Kim, Eun Young Kim, Eun Kyoung Kim, Hak Rim Kim, Hee Sik Kim, Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Jin Hoi Kim, Joungmok Kim, Ju Hwan Kim, Keun Il Kim, Peter K. Kim, Seong Jun Kim, Scot R. Kimball, Adi Kimchi, Alec C. Kimmelman, Tomonori Kimura, Matthew A. King, Kerri J. Kinghorn, Conan G. Kinsey, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A. Kirshenbaum, Sergey L. Kiselev, Shuji Kishi, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Yasushi Kitaoka, Kaio Kitazato, Richard N. Kitsis, Josef T. Kittler, Ole Kjaerulff, Peter S. Klein, Thomas Klopstock, Jochen Klucken, Helene Knævelsrud, Roland L. Knorr, Ben C.B. Ko, Fred Ko, Jiunn Liang Ko, Hotaka Kobayashi, Satoru Kobayashi, Ina Koch, Jan C. Koch, Ulrich Koenig, Donat Kögel, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Sepp D. Kohlwein, Nur M. Kocaturk, Masaaki Komatsu, Jeannette König, Toru Kono, Benjamin T. Kopp, Tamas Korcsmaros, Gözde Korkmaz, Viktor I. Korolchuk, Mónica Suárez Korsnes, Ali Koskela, Janaiah Kota, Yaichiro Kotake, Monica L. Kotler, Yanjun Kou, Michael I. Koukourakis, Evangelos Koustas, Attila L. Kovacs, Tibor Kovács, Daisuke Koya, Tomohiro Kozako, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Anna D. Krasnodembskaya, Carole Kretz-Remy, Guido Kroemer, Nicholas T. Ktistakis, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Sabine Kuenen, Lars Kuerschner, Thomas Kukar, Ajay Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Dhiraj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Shinji Kume, Caroline Kumsta, Chanakya N. Kundu, Mondira Kundu, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Lukasz Kurgan, Tatiana G. Kutateladze, Ozlem Kutlu, Seong Ae Kwak, Ho Jeong Kwon, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Yong Tae Kwon, Irene Kyrmizi, Albert La Spada, Patrick Labonté, Sylvain Ladoire, Ilaria Laface, Frank Lafont, Diane C. Lagace, Vikramjit Lahiri, Zhibing Lai, Angela S. Laird, Aparna Lakkaraju, Trond Lamark, Sheng Hui Lan, Ane Landajuela, Darius J.R. Lane, Jon D. Lane, Charles H. Lang, Carsten Lange, Ülo Langel, Rupert Langer, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn Laporte, Nicholas F. LaRusso, Isabel Lastres-Becker, Wilson Chun Yu Lau, Gordon W. Laurie, Sergio Lavandero, Betty Yuen Kwan Law, Helen Ka wai Law, Rob Layfield, Weidong Le, Herve Le Stunff, Alexandre Y. Leary, Jean Jacques Lebrun, Lionel Y.W. Leck, Jean Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Changwook Lee, Chung Pei Lee, Da Hye Lee, Edward B. Lee, Erinna F. Lee, Gyun Min Lee, He Jin Lee, Heung Kyu Lee, Jae Man Lee, Jason S. Lee, Jin A. Lee, Joo Yong Lee, Jun Hee Lee, Michael Lee, Min Goo Lee, Min Jae Lee, Myung Shik Lee, Sang Yoon Lee, Seung Jae Lee, Stella Y. Lee, Sung Bae Lee, Won Hee Lee, Ying Ray Lee, Yong ho Lee, Youngil Lee, Christophe Lefebvre, Renaud Legouis, Yu L. Lei, Yuchen Lei, Sergey Leikin, Gerd Leitinger, Leticia Lemus, Shuilong Leng, Olivia Lenoir, Guido Lenz, Heinz Josef Lenz, Paola Lenzi, Yolanda León, Andréia M. Leopoldino, Christoph Leschczyk, Stina Leskelä, Elisabeth Letellier, Chi Ting Leung, Po Sing Leung, Jeremy S. Leventhal, Beth Levine, Patrick A. Lewis, Klaus Ley, Bin Li, Da Qiang Li, Jianming Li, Jing Li, Jiong Li, Ke Li, Liwu Li, Mei Li, Min Li, Ming Li, Ming Li, Mingchuan Li, Pin Lan Li, Ming Qing Li, Qing Li, Sheng Li, Tiangang Li, Wei Li, Wenming Li, Xue Li, Yi Ping Li, Yuan Li, Zhiqiang Li, Zhiyong Li, Zhiyuan Li, Jiqin Lian, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Weicheng Liang, Yongheng Liang, Yong Tian Liang, Guanghong Liao, Lujian Liao, Mingzhi Liao, Yung Feng Liao, Mariangela Librizzi, Pearl P.Y. Lie, Mary A. Lilly, Hyunjung J. Lim, Thania R.R. Lima, Federica Limana, Chao Lin, Chih Wen Lin, Dar Shong Lin, Fu Cheng Lin, Jiandie D. Lin, Kurt M. Lin, Kwang Huei Lin, Liang Tzung Lin, Pei Hui Lin, Qiong Lin, Shaofeng Lin, Su Ju Lin, Wenyu Lin, Xueying Lin, Yao Xin Lin, Yee Shin Lin, Rafael Linden, Paula Lindner, Shuo Chien Ling, Paul Lingor, Amelia K. Linnemann, Yih Cherng Liou, Marta M. Lipinski, Saška Lipovšek, Vitor A. Lira, Natalia Lisiak, Paloma B. Liton, Chao Liu, Ching Hsuan Liu, Chun Feng Liu, Cui Hua Liu, Fang Liu, Hao Liu, Hsiao Sheng Liu, Hua feng Liu, Huifang Liu, Jia Liu, Jing Liu, Julia Liu, Leyuan Liu, Longhua Liu, Meilian Liu, Qin Liu, Wei Liu, Wende Liu, Xiao Hong Liu, Xiaodong Liu, Xingguo Liu, Xu Liu, Xuedong Liu, Yanfen Liu, Yang Liu, Yang Liu, Yueyang Liu, Yule Liu, J. Andrew Livingston, Gerard Lizard, Jose M. Lizcano, Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer, Matilde E. LLeonart, David Llobet-Navàs, Alicia Llorente, Chih Hung Lo, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Qi Long, Yun Chau Long, Ben Loos, Julia A. Loos, Manuela G. López, Guillermo López-Doménech, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Ana T. López-Jiménez, Óscar López-Pérez, Israel López-Valero, Magdalena J. Lorenowicz, Mar Lorente, Peter Lorincz, Laura Lossi, Sophie Lotersztajn, Penny E. Lovat, Jonathan F. Lovell, Alenka Lovy, Péter Lőw, Guang Lu, Haocheng Lu, Jia Hong Lu, Jin Jian Lu, Mengji Lu, Shuyan Lu, Alessandro Luciani, John M. Lucocq, Paula Ludovico, Micah A. Luftig, Morten Luhr, Diego Luis-Ravelo, Julian J. Lum, Liany Luna-Dulcey, Anders H. Lund, Viktor K. Lund, Jan D. Lünemann, Patrick Lüningschrör, Honglin Luo, Rongcan Luo, Shouqing Luo, Zhi Luo, Claudio Luparello, Bernhard Lüscher, Luan Luu, Alex Lyakhovich, Konstantin G. Lyamzaev, Alf Håkon Lystad, Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk, Alvin C. Ma, Changle Ma, Mengxiao Ma, Ning Fang Ma, Quan Hong Ma, Xinliang Ma, Yueyun Ma, Zhenyi Ma, Ormond A. MacDougald, Fernando Macian, Gustavo C. MacIntosh, Jeffrey P. MacKeigan, Kay F. Macleod, Sandra Maday, Frank Madeo, Muniswamy Madesh, Tobias Madl, Julio Madrigal-Matute, Akiko Maeda, Yasuhiro Maejima, Marta Magarinos, Poornima Mahavadi, Emiliano Maiani, Kenneth Maiese, Panchanan Maiti, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Barbara Majello, Michael B. Major, Elena Makareeva, Fayaz Malik, Karthik Mallilankaraman, Walter Malorni, Alina Maloyan, Najiba Mammadova, Gene Chi Wai Man, Federico Manai, Joseph D. Mancias, Eva Maria Mandelkow, Michael A. Mandell, Angelo A. Manfredi, Masoud H. Manjili, Ravi Manjithaya, Patricio Manque, Bella B. Manshian, Raquel Manzano, Claudia Manzoni, Kai Mao, Cinzia Marchese, Sandrine Marchetti, Anna Maria Marconi, Fabrizio Marcucci, Stefania Mardente, Olga A. Mareninova, Marta Margeta, Muriel Mari, Sara Marinelli, Oliviero Marinelli, Guillermo Mariño, Sofia Mariotto, Richard S. Marshall, Mark R. Marten, Sascha Martens, Alexandre P.J. Martin, Katie R. Martin, Sara Martin, Shaun Martin, Adrián Martín-Segura, Miguel A. Martín-Acebes, Inmaculada Martin-Burriel, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Paloma Martin-Sanz, José A. Martina, Wim Martinet, Aitor Martinez, Ana Martinez, Jennifer Martinez, Moises Martinez Velazquez, Nuria Martinez-Lopez, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Daniel O. Martins, Joilson O. Martins, Waleska K. Martins, Tania Martins-Marques, Emanuele Marzetti, Shashank Masaldan, Celine Masclaux-Daubresse, Douglas G. Mashek, Valentina Massa, Lourdes Massieu, Glenn R. Masson, Laura Masuelli, Anatoliy I. Masyuk, Tetyana V. Masyuk, Paola Matarrese, Ander Matheu, Satoaki Matoba, Sachiko Matsuzaki, Pamela Mattar, Alessandro Matte, Domenico Mattoscio, José L. Mauriz, Mario Mauthe, Caroline Mauvezin, Emanual Maverakis, Paola Maycotte, Johanna Mayer, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Cristina Mazzoni, Joseph R. Mazzulli, Nami McCarty, Christine McDonald, Mitchell R. McGill, Sharon L. McKenna, Beth Ann McLaughlin, Fionn McLoughlin, Mark A. McNiven, Thomas G. McWilliams, Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou, Tania Catarina Medeiros, Diego L. Medina, Lynn A. Megeney, Klara Megyeri, Maryam Mehrpour, Jawahar L. Mehta, Alfred J. Meijer, Annemarie H. Meijer, Jakob Mejlvang, Alicia Meléndez, Annette Melk, Gonen Memisoglu, Alexandrina F. Mendes, Delong Meng, Fei Meng, Tian Meng, Rubem Menna-Barreto, Manoj B. Menon, Carol Mercer, Anne E. Mercier, Jean Louis Mergny, Adalberto Merighi, Seth D. Merkley, Giuseppe Merla, Volker Meske, Ana Cecilia Mestre, Shree Padma Metur, Christian Meyer, Hemmo Meyer, Wenyi Mi, Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Junying Miao, Lucia Micale, Yasuo Miki, Enrico Milan, Małgorzata Milczarek, Dana L. Miller, Samuel I. Miller, Silke Miller, Steven W. Millward, Ira Milosevic, Elena A. Minina, Hamed Mirzaei, Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Mehdi Mirzaei, Amit Mishra, Nandita Mishra, Paras Kumar Mishra, Maja Misirkic Marjanovic, Roberta Misasi, Amit Misra, Gabriella Misso, Claire Mitchell, Geraldine Mitou, Tetsuji Miura, Shigeki Miyamoto, Makoto Miyazaki, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Taiga Miyazaki, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Trine H. Mogensen, Baharia Mograbi, Reza Mohammadinejad, Yasir Mohamud, Abhishek Mohanty, Sipra Mohapatra, Torsten Möhlmann, Asif Mohmmed, Anna Moles, Kelle H. Moley, Maurizio Molinari, Vincenzo Mollace, Andreas Buch Møller, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Costanza Montagna, Mervyn J. Monteiro, Andrea Montella, L. Ruth Montes, Barbara Montico, Vinod K. Mony, Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni, Michael N. Moore, Mohammad A. Moosavi, Ana L. Mora, Marina Mora, David Morales-Alamo, Rosario Moratalla, Paula I. Moreira, Elena Morelli, Sandra Moreno, Daniel Moreno-Blas, Viviana Moresi, Benjamin Morga, Alwena H. Morgan, Fabrice Morin, Hideaki Morishita, Orson L. Moritz, Mariko Moriyama, Yuji Moriyasu, Manuela Morleo, Eugenia Morselli, Jose F. Moruno-Manchon, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Elisa Motori, Andrea Felinto Moura, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Maria Mrakovcic, Gabriel Muciño-Hernández, Anupam Mukherjee, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Jean M. Mulcahy Levy, Victoriano Mulero, Sylviane Muller, Christian Münch, Ashok Munjal, Pura Munoz-Canoves, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Christian Münz, Tomokazu Murakawa, Claudia Muratori, Brona M. Murphy, J. Patrick Murphy, Aditya Murthy, Timo T. Myöhänen, Indira U. Mysorekar, Jennifer Mytych, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Massimo Nabissi, Péter Nagy, Jihoon Nah, Aimable Nahimana, Ichiro Nakagawa, Ken Nakamura, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Shyam S. Nandi, Meera Nanjundan, Monica Nanni, Gennaro Napolitano, Roberta Nardacci, Masashi Narita, Melissa Nassif, Ilana Nathan, Manabu Natsumeda, Ryno J. Naude, Christin Naumann, Olaia Naveiras, Fatemeh Navid, Steffan T. Nawrocki, Taras Y. Nazarko, Francesca Nazio, Florentina Negoita, Thomas Neill, Amanda L. Neisch, Luca M. Neri, Mihai G. Netea, Patrick Neubert, Thomas P. Neufeld, Dietbert Neumann, Albert Neutzner, Phillip T. Newton, Paul A. Ney, Ioannis P. Nezis, Charlene C.W. Ng, Tzi Bun Ng, Hang T.T. Nguyen, Long T. Nguyen, Hong Min Ni, Clíona Ní Cheallaigh, Zhenhong Ni, M. Celeste Nicolao, Francesco Nicoli, Manuel Nieto-Diaz, Per Nilsson, Shunbin Ning, Rituraj Niranjan, Hiroshi Nishimune, Mireia Niso-Santano, Ralph A. Nixon, Annalisa Nobili, Clevio Nobrega, Takeshi Noda, Uxía Nogueira-Recalde, Trevor M. Nolan, Ivan Nombela, Ivana Novak, Beatriz Novoa, Takashi Nozawa, Nobuyuki Nukina, Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer, Jesper Nylandsted, Tracey R. O’Donovan, Seónadh M. O’Leary, Eyleen J. O’Rourke, Mary P. O’Sullivan, Timothy E. O’Sullivan, Salvatore Oddo, Ina Oehme, Michinaga Ogawa, Eric Ogier-Denis, Margret H. Ogmundsdottir, Besim Ogretmen, Goo Taeg Oh, Seon Hee Oh, Young J. Oh, Takashi Ohama, Yohei Ohashi, Masaki Ohmuraya, Vasileios Oikonomou, Rani Ojha, Koji Okamoto, Hitoshi Okazawa, Masahide Oku, Sara Oliván, Jorge M.A. Oliveira, Michael Ollmann, James A. Olzmann, Shakib Omari, M. Bishr Omary, Gizem Önal, Martin Ondrej, Sang Bing Ong, Sang Ging Ong, Anna Onnis, Juan A. Orellana, Sara Orellana-Muñoz, Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan, Xilma R. Ortiz-Gonzalez, Elena Ortona, Heinz D. Osiewacz, Abdel Hamid K. Osman, Rosario Osta, Marisa S. Otegui, Kinya Otsu, Christiane Ott, Luisa Ottobrini, Jing hsiung James Ou, Tiago F. Outeiro, Inger Oynebraten, Melek Ozturk, Gilles Pagès, Susanta Pahari, Marta Pajares, Utpal B. Pajvani, Rituraj Pal, Simona Paladino, Nicolas Pallet, Michela Palmieri, Giuseppe Palmisano, Camilla Palumbo, Francesco Pampaloni, Lifeng Pan, Qingjun Pan, Wenliang Pan, Xin Pan, Ganna Panasyuk, Rahul Pandey, Udai B. Pandey, Vrajesh Pandya, Francesco Paneni, Shirley Y. Pang, Elisa Panzarini, Daniela L. Papademetrio, Elena Papaleo, Daniel Papinski, Diana Papp, Eun Chan Park, Hwan Tae Park, Ji Man Park, Jong In Park, Joon Tae Park, Junsoo Park, Sang Chul Park, Sang Youel Park, Abraham H. Parola, Jan B. Parys, Adrien Pasquier, Benoit Pasquier, João F. Passos, Nunzia Pastore, Hemal H. Patel, Daniel Patschan, Sophie Pattingre, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva, Jose Pedraza-Chaverri, Zully Pedrozo, Gang Pei, Jianming Pei, Hadas Peled-Zehavi, Joaquín M. Pellegrini, Joffrey Pelletier, Miguel A. 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Rojo, Krzysztof Rolka, Vanina Romanello, Luigina Romani, Alessandra Romano, Patricia S. Romano, David Romeo-Guitart, Luis C. Romero, Montserrat Romero, Joseph C. Roney, Christopher Rongo, Sante Roperto, Mathias T. Rosenfeldt, Philip Rosenstiel, Anne G. Rosenwald, Kevin A. Roth, Lynn Roth, Steven Roth, Kasper M.A. Rouschop, Benoit D. Roussel, Sophie Roux, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Ajit Roy, Aurore Rozieres, Diego Ruano, David C. Rubinsztein, Maria P. Rubtsova, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Christoph Ruckenstuhl, Emil Rudolf, Rüdiger Rudolf, Alessandra Ruggieri, Avnika Ashok Ruparelia, Paola Rusmini, Ryan R. Russell, Gian Luigi Russo, Maria Russo, Rossella Russo, Oxana O. Ryabaya, Kevin M. Ryan, Kwon Yul Ryu, Maria Sabater-Arcis, Ulka Sachdev, Michael Sacher, Carsten Sachse, Abhishek Sadhu, Junichi Sadoshima, Nathaniel Safren, Paul Saftig, Antonia P. Sagona, Gaurav Sahay, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mustafa Sahin, Ozgur Sahin, Sumit Sahni, Nayuta Saito, Shigeru Saito, Tsunenori Saito, Ryohei Sakai, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Jun Ichi Sakamaki, Kalle Saksela, Gloria Salazar, Anna Salazar-Degracia, Ghasem H. Salekdeh, Ashok K. Saluja, Belém Sampaio-Marques, Maria Cecilia Sanchez, Jose A. Sanchez-Alcazar, Victoria Sanchez-Vera, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, J. Thomas Sanderson, Marco Sandri, Stefano Santaguida, Laura Santambrogio, Magda M. Santana, Giorgio Santoni, Alberto Sanz, Pascual Sanz, Shweta Saran, Marco Sardiello, Timothy J. Sargeant, Apurva Sarin, Chinmoy Sarkar, Sovan Sarkar, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Surajit Sarkar, Dipanka Tanu Sarmah, Jaakko Sarparanta, Aishwarya Sathyanarayan, Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan, K. Matthew Scaglione, Francesca Scatozza, Liliana Schaefer, Zachary T. Schafer, Ulrich E. Schaible, Anthony H.V. Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M. Schatzl, Catherine H. 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Sharkey, Dipali Sharma, Gaurav Sharma, Kulbhushan Sharma, Pawan Sharma, Surendra Sharma, Han Ming Shen, Hongtao Shen, Jiangang Shen, Ming Shen, Weili Shen, Zheni Shen, Rui Sheng, Zhi Sheng, Zu Hang Sheng, Jianjian Shi, Xiaobing Shi, Ying Hong Shi, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Jeng Jer Shieh, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Makoto Shimozawa, Takahiro Shintani, Christopher J. Shoemaker, Shahla Shojaei, Ikuo Shoji, Bhupendra V. Shravage, Viji Shridhar, Chih Wen Shu, Hong Bing Shu, Ke Shui, Arvind K. Shukla, Timothy E. Shutt, Valentina Sica, Aleem Siddiqui, Amanda Sierra, Virginia Sierra-Torre, Santiago Signorelli, Payel Sil, Bruno J.de Andrade Silva, Johnatas D. Silva, Eduardo Silva-Pavez, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Rachel E. Simmonds, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans Uwe Simon, Matias Simons, Anurag Singh, Lalit P. Singh, Rajat Singh, Shivendra V. Singh, Shrawan K. Singh, Sudha B. 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Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations

Abstract

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-382
Number of pages382
JournalAutophagy
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Autophagosome
  • LC3
  • cancer
  • flux
  • lysosome
  • macroautophagy
  • neurodegeneration
  • phagophore
  • stress
  • vacuole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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