GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity

Allison Doyle Brackley, Ruben Gomez, Armen N. Akopian, Michael A. Henry, Nathaniel A. Jeske

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR), those that target the delta class (DOR) also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2686-2698
Number of pages13
JournalCell Reports
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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