Glucose clamp technique: A method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance

R. A. DeFronzo, J. D. Tobin, R. Andres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6157 Scopus citations

Abstract

Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a priming infusion of glucose. The desired hyperglycemic plateau is subsequently maintained by adjustment of a variable glucose infusion, based on the negative feedback principle. Because the plasma glucose concentration is held constant, the glucose infusion rate is an index of glucose metabolism. Under these conditions of constant hyperglycemia, the plasma insulin response is biphasic with an early burst of insulin release during the first 6 min followed by a gradually progressive increase in plasma insulin concentration. Euglycemic insulin clamp technique. The plasma insulin concentration is acutely raised and maintained at approximately 100 μU/ml by a prime-continuous infusion of insulin. The plasma glucose concentration is held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion using the negative feedback principle. Under these steady-state conditions of euglycemia, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E214-E223
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism and Gastrointestinal Physiology
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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