Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease GOLD executive summary

Jørgen Vestbo, Suzanne S. Hurd, Alvar G. Agustí, Paul W. Jones, Claus Vogelmeier, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J. Barnes, Leonardo M. Fabbri, Fernando J. Martinez, Masaharu Nishimura, Robert A. Stockley, Don D. Sin, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3966 Scopus citations


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem, and since 2001, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents themaincontents of thesecond5-year revision of theGOLD document that has implemented some of the vast knowledge about COPD accumulated over the last years. Today, GOLD recommends that spirometry isrequired for the clinical diagnosis ofCOPDto avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflowlimitation. Thedocumenthighlights that theassessment of thepatientwith COPDshould always includeassessment of (1)symptoms,(2)severityof airflow limitation, (3) history of exacerbations, and (4) comorbidities. Thefirst threepointscanbeusedtoevaluatelevelof symptomsandrisk of futureexacerbations, andthis isdoneinawaythatsplitspatientswith COPD into four categories-A, B, C, and D. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of COPD match this assessment in an evidence-based attempt to relieve symptoms and reduce risk of exacerbations. Identification and treatment of comorbidities must have high priority, and a separate section in the document addresses management of comorbidities aswell asCOPDin the presence of comorbidities. The revised document also contains a newsection on exacerbations of COPD. TheGOLDinitiative will continue tobringCOPDto the attention of all relevant shareholdersandwillhopefullyinspire futurenationaland local guidelines on the management of COPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)347-365
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2013


  • COPD
  • COPD management
  • Clinical assessment
  • Comorbidities
  • Exacerbations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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