Global experience in cervical carotid artery stent placement

Michael H. Wholey, Mark Wholey, Klaus Mathias, Gary S. Roubin, Edward B. Diethrich, Michel Henry, Steven Bailey, Patrice Bergeron, Gerry Dorros, Gustave Eles, Peter Gaines, Camilo R. Gomez, Bill Gray, Juan Guimaraens, Randal Higashida, David Sai Wah Ho, Barry Katzen, Antonio Kambara, Vijay Kumar, Jean C. LabordeMartin Leon, Lim Michael, Hugo Londero, Juan Mesa, Alejandro Musacchio, Subbarao Myla, Steve Ramee, Adolfo Rodriguez, Kenneth Rosenfield, Noboyuki Sakai, Fayaz Shawl, Horst Sievert, George Teitelbaum, Jacque G. Theron, Prochazka Vaclav, Carlos Vozzi, Jay S. Yadav, Shin Ichi Yoshimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

506 Scopus citations


The purpose of this article is to review and update the current status of carotid artery stent placement in the world. Surveys to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia were initially completed in June 1997. Subsequent information from these 24 centers in addition to 12 new centers has been obtained to update the information. The survey asked the various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 5,210 procedures involving 4,757 patients. There was a technical success of 98.4% with 5,129 carotid arteries treated. Complications that occurred during the carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 134 transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) for a rate of 2.82%. Based on the total patient population, there were 129 minor strokes with a rate of occurrence of 2.72%. The total number of major strokes was 71 for a rate of 1.49%. There were 41 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period resulting in a mortality rate of 0.86%. The combined minor and major strokes and procedure-related death rate was 5.07%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 1.99% and 3.46% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The rate of neurologic events after stent placement has been 1.42% at 6-12-month follow-up. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative for vascular surgery, especially for patients that are high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedure risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development and have not changed significantly since the first survey results. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-167
Number of pages8
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2000


  • Balloon dilatation
  • Carotid occlusive disease
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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