We fed 634 baboons three diets to assess the separate effects of increasing dietary fat and cholesterol intakes on three independent measures of HDL phenotype: concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apoAI, and size distributions of HDL cholesterol. Increasing dietary fat significantly increased concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apoAI (both, P < 0.0001), but did not affect HDL particle sizes, whereas increasing dietary cholesterol increased HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001) concentrations and HDL particle sizes (P = 0.08), but did not affect apoAI concentrations. A substantial proportion of variation in each of the HDL traits was influenced by genes (heritabilities ranged from 25 to 61%) and a common set of genes influenced HDL variation on each of the diets (genetic correlations ranged from 0.64 to 1.0). However, genes exerted a smaller effect on HDL response to changes of dietary fat and of dietary cholesterol. Therefore, dietary fat and cholesterol alter HDL levels and characteristics, but the dietary responses are not strongly mediated by additive genetic effects.
- Diet effects
- Genetic control
- Gradient gel electrophoresis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine