Context: Because of its antiinflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties, adiponectin may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Objectives: The aims of these analyses were: 1) to estimate the heritability of fasting serum adiponectin; 2) to evaluate the effects of age, sex, and body composition on fasting serum adiponectin; 3) to test for associations between fasting serum adiponectin and diet, fitness, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation; and 4) to determine the relationships between fasting serum adiponectin, insulin and lipids, and blood pressure in Hispanic children. Design: Genetic and environmental factors influencing fasting serum adiponectin were investigated in a cohort of children participating in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study in 2000-2005. Setting: This study was performed at the Children's Nutrition Research Center. Participants: The study participants were 805 Hispanic nonoverweight and overweight children, ages 4-19 yr. Main Measure: The main measure of the study was fasting serum adiponectin. Results: The heritability of serum adiponectin was 0.93 ± 0.10 (P = 2.4 × 10-40). Adiponectin differed by age (P = 0.001), sex (P = 0.04), and weight (P = 0.001) status. Adiponectin levels declined with age, in association with changes in sex hormones and growth factors. Adiponectin was not associated with macronutrient intake, fitness, 24-h energy expenditure, or fat oxidation. Controlling for age, sex, and percent fat mass, adiponectin was inversely associated with homeostasis model of insulin resistance, triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.001). Significant positive genetic correlations were detected between adiponectin and total cholesterol (ρG = 0.19), HDL-C ( ρG = 0.32), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( ρG = 0.24), and IGF-binding protein-1 (ρG = 0.39), and negative genetic correlations were detected between adiponectin and leptin (ρG = -0.30), TG (ρG = -0.21), TG/HDL-C ( ρG = -0.33), and IGF-binding protein-3 (ρG = -0.32), indicating shared genetic components in their expression. Conclusion: The high heritability of adiponectin and pleiotropy seen between adiponectin and leptin, growth factors, and lipids may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in overweight Hispanic children.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical