Gender Bias in the Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency: A Snapshot of Current Trends

Efstathios Karamanos, Bao Quynh Julian, Mallory Wampler, Michael Sippel, Amita Shah, Howard Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Introduction: According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the male to female ratio of plastic surgeons is approximately 5:1. As more surgical specialties are recruiting female residents, there has been an increase in the amount of females. We set out to examine the current trends in residency recruitment and whether a quantifiable gender bias exists. Methods: A review of all the integrated plastic surgery programs within the United States was conducted. Data were collected regarding department or division status, the gender of the chairman and the program directors, the number of residents per year and gender of residents per year. The ratio of male to female residents was calculated. Results: A total of 62 residency programs were identified. The vast majority had a male program director with only 8 female program directors identified. The mean ratio of female/male (F/M) residents overall was 1/1.2. Female program directors selected residents in the same ratio as their male counterparts [F/M ratio: 1/1.26 versus 1/1.18, p:0.813]. A linear logistic regression failed to identify the geographic location, department status, gender of the department chairman or the number of residents selected per year as predictors of higher F/M ratio. Conclusions: There are still fewer female program directors and residents in plastic surgery overall. However, neither was more likely to select a resident of their own gender. This analysis does not rule out the possible self-selection factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2581
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 17 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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