Introduction: Postoperative hemorrhage and hematoma (PHH) is a patient safety indicator (PSI) representing a universal complication for all surgical procedures. This study examined the association between gender and the rates of PHH from 2000 to 2012. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on PHH incidence from 2000 to 2012 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Pairwise t tests were performed. Odds ratios and P values were calculated, using a Bonferroni-adjusted α threshold, to examine PHH differences by gender. Results: Our study revealed that males had significantly greater PHH incidence rates compared to females in every year of the study period (P < .001). Conclusions: Contrary to our results, the current literature on PHH largely identifies females as the gender with the greater risk of PHH. Specific to our study, our definition of PHH excludes pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium patients. This finding suggests that pregnancy-related bleeding complications have influenced the current literature and males are the higher risk gender for PHH in nonobstetric procedures.
- Patient safety indicator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine