The high global incidence of prostate cancer has led to a focus on chemoprevention strategies to reduce the public health impact of the disease. Early studies indicating that selenium and vitamin E might protect against prostate cancer encouraged large-scale studies that produced mixed clinical results. Next-generation prostate cancer prevention trials validated the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors in hormone-responsive prostate cancer, and these results were confirmed in follow-up studies. Other interventions on the horizon, involving both dietary and pharmacological agents, hold some promise but require further investigation to validate their efficacy. In this Review, we discuss the clinical and preclinical evidence for dietary and pharmacological prevention of prostate cancer and give an overview of future opportunities for chemoprevention.
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