Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to 1) compare morphological characteristics and functional performance of a sample of patients with vertical maxillary excess (VME) with controls, and to 2) examine how the patients' oral motor function adapts to surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female VME patients were compared with 26 female controls before and up to 3 years after maxillary intrusion surgery. Measures of skeletal morphology, mandibular range of motion, maximum isometric bite force, and levels of electromyogram (EMG) activity in some of the muscles of mastication were made on all subjects over time. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the controls with the patients before and after surgery. Univariate repeated measures ANOVA was used to study longitudinal changes in the patients. Results: Preoperatively, the patients possessed morphological measurements characteristic of vertical maxillary excess. Superior repositioning of the maxilla averaged 3.3 mm. Concurrently, most skeletal measures were brought closer to normal values. Masseter muscle mechanical advantage was significantly lower in the patients than in controls both before and after surgery (P < .05). There was no significant difference between patients and controls for other biomechanical measurements. Mandibular hypomobility was apparent at 6 weeks after surgery, but returned to control values within 6 to 12 months. Before surgery, the patients had maximum isometric bite forces significantly less than those of controls. Bite forces steadily increased after surgery, approaching normal values within 2 years. Before surgery the patients' muscle activity levels per unit of bite forces were equivalent to those of controls or somewhat lower. After surgery some of the patients' muscles had significantly lower levels of muscle activity per unit of bite force than did controls. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that correction of vertical maxillary excess with maxillary intrusion surgery improves some characteristic functional deficits.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery