Force Required to Cinch the Tricuspid Annulus: An Ex-Vivo Study

Amy Adkins, Jesus Aleman, Lori Boies, Edward Sako, Shamik Bhattacharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Tricuspid annuloplasty is the most preferred technique for the treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR). However, high incidences of recurrent regurgitation and risky reoperation demands a deeper insight into the technique. The cinching force required to bring a dilated annulus back to the original size is unknown. The study aim was to quantify the cinching force in the tricuspid annulus which can contribute to the long-term durability of tricuspid annuloplasty and percutaneous device design.

METHODS: In ten ovine hearts, a suture was anchored around the free wall of the tricuspid annulus with the free end attached to a force transducer. The force transducer was mounted on a slider system which pulled the suture at regular intervals. Closure of the tricuspid valve was achieved by pressurizing the right ventricle at 30 mmHg through the pulmonary valve. The suture was pulled to cinch the tricuspid annulus. The tricuspid annulus area was measured from images taken at each increment, and the corresponding force was recorded. The hearts were tested for three conditions: (i) non-pressurized (NP); (ii) pressurized (P; normal), and (iii) dilated-pressurized (DP; diseased). Leakage data were also collected for pressurized and dilated pressurized conditions. Annulus dilation was created by injecting phenol into the annulus.

RESULTS: The maximum annulus dilation obtained was 8.82%, and the maximum cinching force was 0.38 +/- 0.09 N. Leakage was increased by 81.73% from the pressurized to dilated condition.

CONCLUSION: The minimal force required to cinch a tricuspid annulus with severe FTR (23.98% dilation) can be approximated to 0.25 N. The required cinching force can play a major role in the long-term durability of the tricuspid annuloplasty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)644-652
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of heart valve disease
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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