Foot and Ankle Conditions: Pes Planus

Charlie Michaudet, Katherine M. Edenfield, Guy W. Nicolette, Peter J. Carek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Pes planus or pes planovalgus (ie, flatfoot) is a common condition among young children and also is encountered in adults. In children, congenital pes planus typically resolves with age as the foot musculature strengthens. Flexible pes planus is defined as a normal arch during non-weight-bearing activity or tiptoeing, with a flattening arch on standing. In rigid pes planus, the arch remains stiff and collapsed with or without weight bearing. Patients with rigid pes planus should be referred for subspecialist treatment. Patients with flexible pes planus, in the absence of signs of rheumatologic, neuromuscular, genetic, or collagen conditions, should be treated conservatively. Asymptomatic children should be monitored and maintenance of a healthy weight should be encouraged. Surgical intervention for refractory symptomatic pediatric pes planus may be considered but there is little evidence to support it. Several etiologies of acquired pes planus in adults have been identified. The most common is posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Clinical and x-ray evaluation can assist in staging the condition and guiding treatment decisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-23
Number of pages6
JournalFP essentials
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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