Focus on Research Methods - Cigarette smoking: Evidence to guide measurement

Kathleen R. Stevens, Laura R. Muñoz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Smoking cessation programs measure outcomes in terms of abstinence from or reduction in smoking. These outcomes can be measured through self-report by the smoker, through measurement with a biological marker of smoking, or through a combination of both. Consideration of the relative advantages of self-report and biomarker approaches is important in the selection of measurement strategies to evaluate outcomes in smoking cessation interventions. In this article both ways of measuring smoking behavior, self-report and biomarkers of carbon monoxide, cotinine, nicotine, thiocyanate, and alkaloids of nicotine, are explored. Measurement approaches are discussed in light of research evidence and their physiologic bases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-292
Number of pages12
JournalResearch in Nursing and Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004


  • Carbon monoxide
  • Cotinine
  • Evidence-based
  • Measurement
  • Nicotine
  • Self-report
  • Smoking cessation
  • Thiocyanate
  • [Publication type] research instrument

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Focus on Research Methods - Cigarette smoking: Evidence to guide measurement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this