Smoking cessation programs measure outcomes in terms of abstinence from or reduction in smoking. These outcomes can be measured through self-report by the smoker, through measurement with a biological marker of smoking, or through a combination of both. Consideration of the relative advantages of self-report and biomarker approaches is important in the selection of measurement strategies to evaluate outcomes in smoking cessation interventions. In this article both ways of measuring smoking behavior, self-report and biomarkers of carbon monoxide, cotinine, nicotine, thiocyanate, and alkaloids of nicotine, are explored. Measurement approaches are discussed in light of research evidence and their physiologic bases.
- Carbon monoxide
- Smoking cessation
- [Publication type] research instrument
ASJC Scopus subject areas