FIXED‐RATIO ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE‐ESCAPE FROM NALOXONE IN MORPHINE‐DEPENDENT MONKEYS: EFFECTS OF NALOXONE DOSE AND MORPHINE PRETREATMENT

David A. Downs, James H. Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lever pressing by rhesus monkeys was maintained by morphine injections during four equally spaced sessions each day. During other periods, lever pressing was maintained by timeout from a continuous naloxone infusion (escape), or by timeout from a stimulus that preceded naloxone injections, or termination of the injections (avoidance‐escape). As naloxone dose increased in the escape procedure, response rate increased to a maximum and then decreased. In the avoidance‐escape procedure, response rate generally increased as naloxone dose increased, but the changes in rate were small compared to the escape procedure. Substitution of saline for naloxone in the escape procedure led to very low response rates within three sessions. In the avoidance‐escape procedure, rate decrements produced by saline substitution appeared to be related to the behavioral history of the monkey. Previous escape experience led to more rapid decreases in responding when saline was introduced, whereas responding was maintained for 15 sessions in a monkey without prior escape conditioning. Morphine pretreatment produced comparable, dose‐dependent decreases in response rates in both procedures. The rate‐decreasing effects of morphine were exacerbated when no naloxone was delivered in the escape procedure. 1975 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-427
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the experimental analysis of behavior
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1975
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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