Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4.

Catherine Diamante, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Curtis D. Klaassen, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, F. Alan Andersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Basic Violet 3, Basic Violet 1, and Basic Violet 4 are triphenylmethane dyes that function as direct (nonoxidative) hair colorants. No current uses or use concentrations in cosmetics are reported. The term Gentian Violet is used synonymously with Basic Violet 1 and Basic Violet 3, although the chemical structures of these 2 dyes are not the same. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel noted that Basic Violet 1, 3, and 4 contain quaternary ammonium ions, and therefore the rate of penetration across the epidermis is expected to be slow. The panel concluded that because of the carcinogenic potential of these dyes, insufficient data exist to support the safety of Basic Violet 1, 3, and 4 in cosmetic formulation. Dermal absorption data and a risk assessment are needed to complete this safety assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Toxicology
Volume28
Issue number6 Suppl 2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Viola
Cosmetics
Safety
Coloring Agents
Hair Dyes
Gentian Violet
Skin Absorption
Ammonium Compounds
Epidermis
Risk assessment
Ions
Basic Violet 1
ethyl violet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Diamante, C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Marks, J. G., Shank, R. C., ... Alan Andersen, F. (2009). Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4. International Journal of Toxicology, 28(6 Suppl 2). https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581809354649

Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4. / Diamante, Catherine; Bergfeld, Wilma F.; Belsito, Donald V.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Marks, James G.; Shank, Ronald C.; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W.; Alan Andersen, F.

In: International Journal of Toxicology, Vol. 28, No. 6 Suppl 2, 11.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Diamante, C, Bergfeld, WF, Belsito, DV, Klaassen, CD, Marks, JG, Shank, RC, Slaga, TJ, Snyder, PW & Alan Andersen, F 2009, 'Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4.', International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 28, no. 6 Suppl 2. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581809354649
Diamante, Catherine ; Bergfeld, Wilma F. ; Belsito, Donald V. ; Klaassen, Curtis D. ; Marks, James G. ; Shank, Ronald C. ; Slaga, Thomas J ; Snyder, Paul W. ; Alan Andersen, F. / Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4. In: International Journal of Toxicology. 2009 ; Vol. 28, No. 6 Suppl 2.
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