Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics

F. Alan Andersen, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)274S-287S
JournalInternational journal of toxicology
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2010

Keywords

  • cosmetics
  • hydroquinone
  • safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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    Andersen, F. A., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Hill, R. A., Klaassen, C. D., Liebler, D. C., Marks, J. G., Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., & Snyder, P. W. (2010). Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(6), 274S-287S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581810385957