Chemokines recruit inflammatory cells to sites of injury, but the role of the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) during regenerative processes following ischemia is poorly understood. We studied injury, inflammation, perfusion, capillary formation, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, muscle regeneration, fat accumulation, and transcription factor activation in hindlimb muscles of CCR2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice following femoral artery excision (FAE). In both groups, muscle injury and restoration of vascular perfusion were similar. Nevertheless, edema and neutrophil accumulation were significantly elevated in CCR2-/- compared with WT mice at day 1 post-FAE and fewer macrophages were present at day 3. MCP-1 levels in post-ischemic calf muscle of CCR2-/- animals were significantly elevated over baseline through 14 days post-FAE and were higher than WT mice at days 1, 7, and 14. In addition, CCR2-/- mice exhibited impaired muscle regeneration, decreased muscle fiber size, and increased intermuscular adipocytes with similar capillaries/mm2 postinjury. Finally, the transcription factors, MyoD and signal transducers of and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3), were significantly increased above baseline but did not differ significantly between groups at any time point post-FAE. These findings suggest that increases in MCP-1, and possibly, MyoD and STAT3, may modulate molecular signaling in CCR2-/- mice during inflammatory and regenerative events. Furthermore, alterations in neutrophil and macrophage recruitment in CCR2-/- mice may critically alter the normal progression of downstream regenerative events in injured skeletal muscle and may direct myogenic precursor cells in the regenerating milieu toward an adipogenic phenotype.
- Myogenic progenitor cell
- Signal transducers of and activators of transcription-3
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology