Fasting hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Contributions of excessive hepatic glucose production and impaired tissue glucose uptake

Ralph A. DeFronzo, Eleuterio Ferrannini, Donald C. Simonson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

443 Scopus citations

Abstract

The factors responsible for fasting hyperglycemia were investigated in 77 normal weight non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDD) and 72 age-, sex-, and weight-matched control individuals. In diabetic subjects with mild fasting hyperglycemia (<140 mg/dL) hepatic glucose production (1.85 ± 0.03 mg/kg · min) was similar to controls (1.84 ± 0.02); the major factor responsible for the elevated basal glucose level in the diabetic group was a decreased efficiency in the tissue uptake of glucose, as reflected by a 30% decline in the rate of glucose clearance (1.56 ± 0.03 v 2.00 ± 0.03 mL/kg · min, P < .001). In contrast, in diabetic subjects with fasting plasma glucose concentrations above 140 mg/dL, basal hepatic glucose production was significantly elevated (2.42 ± 0.08 mg/kg · min, P < .001) and correlated closely with the increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration (r = .796, P < .001). The basal rate of whole body glucose clearance reached a plateau value at fasting glucose levels of 160 to 180 mg/dL and did not contribute to the further rise in fasting plasma glucose concentrations above 160 to 180 mg/dL. Decreased efficiency of tissue glucose uptake is responsible the development of fasting hyperglycemia in patients with mild NIDDM (fasting plasma glucose < 140 mg/dL). As the diabetic state worsens, an increase in basal hepatic glucose production is the major factor responsible for the progressive rise in fasting glucose levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-395
Number of pages9
JournalMetabolism
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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