Factors contributing to employment patterns after liver transplantation

Eliza W. Beal, Dmitry Tumin, Khalid Mumtaz, Michael Nau, Joseph D. Tobias, Don Hayes, Kenneth Washburn, Sylvester M. Black

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Many liver transplant recipients return to work, but their patterns of employment are unclear. We examine patterns of employment 5 years after liver transplantation. Methods: First-time liver transplant recipients ages 18-60 years transplanted from 2002 to 2009 and surviving at least 5 years were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry. Recipients' post-transplant employment status was classified as follows: (i) never employed; (ii) returned to work within 2 years and remained employed (continuous employment); (iii) returned to work within 2 years, but was subsequently unemployed (intermittent employment); or (iv) returned to work ≥3 years post-transplant (delayed employment). Results: Of 28 306 liver recipients identified during the study period, 12 998 survived at least 5 years and contributed at least 1 follow-up of employment status. A minority of patients (4654; 36%) were never employed, while 3780 (29%) were continuously employed, 3027 (23%) were intermittently employed, and 1537 (12%) had delayed employment. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of intermittent and delayed employment included lower socioeconomic status, higher local unemployment rates, and post-transplant comorbidities or complications. Conclusion: Never, intermittent, and delayed employment are common after liver transplantation. Socioeconomic and labor market characteristics may add to clinical factors that limit liver transplant recipients’ continuous employment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12967
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017


  • employment
  • liver transplantation
  • unemployment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation


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