Background: The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) was a 7-year randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial of the efficacy of finasteride for the prevention of prostate cancer with a primary outcome of histologically determined prevalence of prostate cancer at the end of 7 years. Methods: A systematic modeling process using logistic regression identified factors available at year 6 that are associated with end-of-study (EOS) biopsy adherence at year 7, stratified by whether participants were ever prompted for a prostate biopsy by year 6. Final models were evaluated for discrimination. At year 6,13,590 men were available for analysis. Results: Participants were more likely to have the EOS biopsy if they were adherent to study visit schedules and procedures and/or were in good health (P < 0.01). Participants at larger sites and/or sites that received retention and adherence grants were also more likely to have the EOS biopsy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show good adherence to study requirements 1 year before the EOS biopsy was associated with greater odds that a participant would comply with the invasive EOS requirement. Impact: Monitoring adherence behaviors may identify participants at risk of nonadherence to more demanding study end points. Such information could help frame adherence intervention strategies in future trials.
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