Fabrication and validation of a low-cost, medium-fidelity silicone injection molded endoscopic sinus surgery simulation model

Daniel R. Chang, Ryan P. Lin, Sarah Bowe, Leon Bunegin, Erik K. Weitzel, Kevin C. McMains, Thomas Willson, Philip G. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Objectives/Hypothesis: Develop a low-cost, medium-fidelity model for education in endoscopic sinus surgery techniques. Establish face and content validity of the model based on the feedback of otolaryngology faculty including fellowship-trained rhinologists. Study Design: Survey. Methods: A novel silicone injection molded sinus model was constructed. Three fellowship-trained rhinologists and four general otolaryngologists were recruited to perform seven tasks and provide feedback of the model's performance via a 22-question Likert survey. Results: Those surveyed strongly agreed the sinus model is useful for basic endoscopic skill acquisition such as camera skills (86%), hand-eye coordination (100%), nasal endoscopy skills (100%). Ratings of the model for training the specific tasks were consistently high. Neutral or lower were received for inferior turbinoplasty (14%), frontal balloon task (14%), understanding the ethmoid bulla (29%), and advanced sinus techniques (57%). All faculty strongly agreed they would be interested in using the model to train residents. Conclusions: Simulation models have proven efficacy in endoscopic skill and procedural training. The group developed a novel low-cost, medium-fidelity sinus training model utilizing three-dimensional modeling and printing. Testing of this model revealed high ratings for both face and construct validity for a range of endoscopic procedures. Strong interest in using this model for resident training was unanimous among all survey participants. Level of Evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 127:781–786, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)781-786
Number of pages6
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • deliberate practice
  • fabrication
  • model task trainer
  • resident education
  • simulation
  • three-dimensional printing
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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