Fabrication and validation of a low-cost, medium-fidelity silicone injection molded endoscopic sinus surgery simulation model

Daniel R. Chang, Ryan P. Lin, Sarah Bowe, Leonid Bunegin, Erik K. Weitzel, Kevin C. McMains, Thomas Willson, Philip G Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Objectives/Hypothesis: Develop a low-cost, medium-fidelity model for education in endoscopic sinus surgery techniques. Establish face and content validity of the model based on the feedback of otolaryngology faculty including fellowship-trained rhinologists. Study Design: Survey. Methods: A novel silicone injection molded sinus model was constructed. Three fellowship-trained rhinologists and four general otolaryngologists were recruited to perform seven tasks and provide feedback of the model's performance via a 22-question Likert survey. Results: Those surveyed strongly agreed the sinus model is useful for basic endoscopic skill acquisition such as camera skills (86%), hand-eye coordination (100%), nasal endoscopy skills (100%). Ratings of the model for training the specific tasks were consistently high. Neutral or lower were received for inferior turbinoplasty (14%), frontal balloon task (14%), understanding the ethmoid bulla (29%), and advanced sinus techniques (57%). All faculty strongly agreed they would be interested in using the model to train residents. Conclusions: Simulation models have proven efficacy in endoscopic skill and procedural training. The group developed a novel low-cost, medium-fidelity sinus training model utilizing three-dimensional modeling and printing. Testing of this model revealed high ratings for both face and construct validity for a range of endoscopic procedures. Strong interest in using this model for resident training was unanimous among all survey participants. Level of Evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 127:781–786, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)781-786
Number of pages6
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • deliberate practice
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • fabrication
  • model task trainer
  • resident education
  • simulation
  • three-dimensional printing
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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