Extrapineal melatonin

Sources, regulation, and potential functions

Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Germaine Escames, Carmen Venegas, María E. Díaz-Casado, Elena Lima-Cabello, Luis C. López, Sergio Rosales-Corral, Dun Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

325 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Endogenous melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan via 5-hydroxytryptamine. It is considered an indoleamine from a biochemical point of view because the melatonin molecule contains a substituted indolic ring with an amino group. The circadian production of melatonin by the pineal gland explains its chronobiotic influence on organismal activity, including the endocrine and non-endocrine rhythms. Other functions of melatonin, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, its genomic effects, and its capacity to modulate mitochondrial homeostasis, are linked to the redox status of cells and tissues. with the aid of specific melatonin antibodies, the presence of melatonin has been detected in multiple extrapineal tissues including the brain, retina, lens, cochlea, Harderian gland, airway epithelium, skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, thyroid, pancreas, thymus, spleen, immune system cells, carotid body, reproductive tract, and endothelial cells. In most of these tissues, the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes have been identified. Melatonin is present in essentially all biological fluids including cerebrospinal flluid, saliva, bile, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. In several of these fluids, melatonin concentrations exceed those in the blood. The importance of the continual availability of melatonin at the cellular level is important for its physiological regulation of cell homeostasis, and may be relevant to its therapeutic applications. Because of this, it is essential to compile information related to its peripheral production and regulation of this ubiquitously acting indoleamine. Thus, this review emphasizes the presence of melatonin in extrapineal organs, tissues, and fluids of mammals including humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2997-3025
Number of pages29
JournalCellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Volume71
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Melatonin
Homeostasis
Harderian Gland
Carotid Body
Pineal Gland
Synovial Fluid
Cochlea
Human Milk
Amniotic Fluid
Saliva
Bile
Tryptophan
Thymus Gland
Lenses
Oxidation-Reduction
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Retina
Gastrointestinal Tract
Pancreas
Mammals

Keywords

  • Cytoprotection
  • Free radicals
  • Homeostasis
  • Melatonin receptors
  • Mitochondria
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Acuña-Castroviejo, D., Escames, G., Venegas, C., Díaz-Casado, M. E., Lima-Cabello, E., López, L. C., ... Reiter, R. J. (2014). Extrapineal melatonin: Sources, regulation, and potential functions. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71(16), 2997-3025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-014-1579-2

Extrapineal melatonin : Sources, regulation, and potential functions. / Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germaine; Venegas, Carmen; Díaz-Casado, María E.; Lima-Cabello, Elena; López, Luis C.; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun Xian; Reiter, Russel J.

In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. 71, No. 16, 2014, p. 2997-3025.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acuña-Castroviejo, D, Escames, G, Venegas, C, Díaz-Casado, ME, Lima-Cabello, E, López, LC, Rosales-Corral, S, Tan, DX & Reiter, RJ 2014, 'Extrapineal melatonin: Sources, regulation, and potential functions', Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 71, no. 16, pp. 2997-3025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-014-1579-2
Acuña-Castroviejo D, Escames G, Venegas C, Díaz-Casado ME, Lima-Cabello E, López LC et al. Extrapineal melatonin: Sources, regulation, and potential functions. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2014;71(16):2997-3025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-014-1579-2
Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío ; Escames, Germaine ; Venegas, Carmen ; Díaz-Casado, María E. ; Lima-Cabello, Elena ; López, Luis C. ; Rosales-Corral, Sergio ; Tan, Dun Xian ; Reiter, Russel J. / Extrapineal melatonin : Sources, regulation, and potential functions. In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2014 ; Vol. 71, No. 16. pp. 2997-3025.
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