Photothermal radiometry (PTR) and modulated luminescence (LUM) were applied to detect and monitor the demineralization of root and enamel surfaces of human teeth to produce caries lesions and the subsequent remineralization of the produced lesions. The experimental set-up consisted of a semiconductor laser (659 nm, 120 mW), a mercury-cadmium-telluride IR detector for PTR, a photodiode for LUM, and two lock-in amplifiers. A lesion was created on a 1-mm × 4-mm rectangular window, spanning root to enamel surface, using an artificial caries lesion gel to demineralize the tooth surface and create small carious lesions. The samples were subsequently immersed in a remineralization solution. Each sample was examined with PTR/LUM on root and enamel before and after treatment at times from 1 to 10 days of demineralization and 2 to 10 days of remineralization. PTR/LUM signals showed gradual and consistent changes with treatment time. At the completion of the experiments, transverse micro-radiography (TMR) analysis was performed to correlate the PTR/LUM signals to depth of the carious lesions and mineral losses. In this study, TMR showed good correlation with PTR/LUM. It was also found that treatment duration did not correlate well to any technique, PTR/LUM, or TMR, which is indicative of significant variations in demineralization - remineralization rates among different teeth.