BACKGROUND: A resurgence of aminoglycoside use has followed the recent increase of multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens and is often needed even in the treatment of dialysis-dependent patients; however, studies evaluating the treatment of gram-negative infections with aminoglycosides, including the optimal dose, in the setting of dialysis are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current patterns of aminoglycoside use, including microbiologic and clinical indications, and identify risk factors associated with mortality in dialysis-dependent patients receiving aminoglycosides. METHODS: Utilization, clinical, and microbiologic data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period (July 2008-June 2010) for adults with a diagnosis of renal failure requiring dialysis and aminoglycoside therapy. Binary logistic and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for allcause 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive aminoglycoside courses in 88 patients met inclusion criteria for evaluation. A wide variety of clinical and microbiologic indications were documented. The average duration of aminoglycoside therapy was 5.2 days (range 1-42), the average duration of antimicrobial therapy was 13.5 days (1-60), and the all-cause 30-day mortality rate was 36.5%. Factors associated with all-cause 30-day mortality were gram-negative rod (GNR) bacteremia (OR 28.6; p = 0.035), advanced age (OR 8.5; p = 0.030), recent admission (OR 33.4; p = 0.038), and inadequate empiric therapy (OR 14.9; p = 0.024). Intravenous catheter removal was protective of all-cause 30-day mortality (OR 0.01; p = 0.005). A first pre-dialysis plasma concentration relative to the minimum inhibitory concentration (Cp:MIC) <6 mg/L (gentamicin/tobramycin) was associated with an increased risk of mortality (p = 0.026) upon subgroup analysis of dialysis-dependent patients with GNR bloodstream infections. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes among dialysis-dependent patients who received aminoglycosides were below expectations. Various risk factors for mortality were identified, including retention of the catheter, inadequate empiric therapy, and a Cp:MIC <6 mg/L. Improved approaches to dosing of aminoglycosides in dialysisdependent patients, including more aggressive dosing practices, should be urgently explored in attempts to maximize favorable patient outcomes.
|Translated title of the contribution||Clinical experience with aminoglycosides in dialysis-dependent patients: Risk factors for mortality and reassessment of current dosing practices|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Annals of Pharmacotherapy|
|State||Published - Nov 2011|
- Renal replacement therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)