The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increased by 49% between 1990 and 2000, reaching nearly epidemic proportions. In 2010, DM (type 1 or 2) was estimated to affect nearly 30% (10.9 million) of people 65 years and older and 215,000 of those younger than 20 years. Macrovascular and microvascular complications can occur; DM is a major cause of heart disease and stroke, and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Based on 2007 data, the economic impact of DM is considerable, with total costs, direct medical costs, and indirect costs estimated at $174 billion, $116 billion, and $58 billion, respectively. Normal glucose regulation is maintained by an intricate interaction between pancreatic β-cells (insulin/amylin), pancreatic α-cells (glucagon), and associated organs (eg, intestines, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue). Newly elucidated mechanisms include the involvement of the kidneys in glucose regulation, as well as central glucose regulation by the brain. The central defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are decreased insulin secretion, glucoregulatory hormone deficiency/resistance, and insulin resistance, resulting in abnormal glucose homeostasis. This article provides an extensive review of mechanisms involved in physiologic blood glucose regulation and imbalances in glucose homeostasis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||The American journal of managed care|
|Issue number||1 Suppl|
|State||Published - Jan 2012|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy