Evolution of human and non-human primate CC chemokine receptor 5 gene and mRNA: Potential roles for haplotype and mRNA diversity, differential haplotype-specific transcriptional activity, and altered transcription factor binding to polymorphic nucleotides in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus

Srinivas Mummidi, Mike Bamshad, Seema S. Ahuja, Enrique Gonzalez, Pablo M. Feuillet, Kazi Begum, M. Cristina Galvis, Vannessa Kostecki, Anthony J. Valente, Krishna K. Murthy, Luis Haro, Matthew J. Dolan, Jonathan S. Allan, Sunil K. Ahuja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

129 Scopus citations

Abstract

Polymorphisms in CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the major coreceptor of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), have a major influence on HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. The effects of these polymorphisms may, in part, account for the differential pathogenesis of HIV-1 (immunosuppression) and SIV (natural resistance) in humans and non-human primates, respectively. Thus, understanding the genetic basis underlying species-specific responses to HIV-1 and SIV could reveal new anti-HIV-1 therapeutic strategies for humans. To this end, we compared CCR5 structure/evolution and regulation among humans, apes, Old World Monkeys, and New World Monkeys. The evolution of the CCR5 cis-regulatory region versus the open reading frame as well as among different domains of the open reading frame differed from one another. CCR5 cis-regulatory region sequence variation in humans was substantially higher than anticipated. Based on this variation, CCR5 haplotypes could be organized into seven evolutionarily distinct human haplogroups (HH) that we designated HHA, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and -G. HHA haplotypes were defined as ancestral to all other haplotypes by comparison to the CCR5 haplotypes of non-human primates. Different human and non-human primate CCR5 haplotypes were associated with differential transcriptional regulation, and various polymorphisms resulted in modified DNA-nuclear protein interactions, including altered binding of members of the NF-κB family of transcription factors. We identified novel CCR5 untranslated mRNA sequences that were conserved in human and non-human primates. In some primates, mutations at exon-intron boundaries caused loss of expression of selected CCR5 mRNA isoforms or production of novel mRNA isoforms. Collectively, these findings suggest that the response to HIV-1 and SIV infection in primates may have been driven, in part, by evolution of the elements controlling CCR5 transcription and translation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18946-18961
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume275
Issue number25
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 23 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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