Evaluation of the ocular penetration of topical alpha-luminol (Galavit®/GVT®)

Enry G. da Silva, Juliet R. Gionfriddo, Susan F. Hudachek, Daniel L. Gustafson, Francisco J. Olea-Popelka, Virgina L. Scofield, Cynthia C. Powell, Ashley E. Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. It has also been implicated as part of the pathogenic mechanisms in the development of glaucoma. Alpha-luminol has shown profound anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both experimental animal and human clinical studies. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate for the first time the ocular penetration of topical alpha-luminol. Methods Nine animals were divided into three treated groups (three animals each; one drop OU/n=18), each group receiving a different concentration of the eyedrop (0.5%, 1.5%, 2.5%). Aqueous humor and peripheral blood samples were obtained from each rabbit at three different timepoints (20min, 4h and 12h). Samples were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry; median values were compared. Results Alpha-luminol was found in the aqueous humor in all treated groups at all timepoints. At the 2nd and 3rd timepoints (4h and 12h), aqueous humor levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) for two of the three dosages tested and it was not detectable in some eyes. The highest aqueous humor concentration of the drug was 272ng/mL after 20min (0.0217% of one drop, 2.5% group). Alpha-luminol was found in the vitreous in two animals, one in the 1.5% and another in the 2.5% group (16.4 and 21.5ng/mL, respectively), at 12h. Conclusions Topically administered alpha-luminol readily penetrates into the anterior chamber and can penetrate into the vitreous chamber. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the intraocular pharmacokinetics of alpha-luminol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2011


  • Alpha-luminol
  • Eye
  • GVT
  • Galavit
  • Glaucoma
  • Oxidative stress
  • Topical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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