Evaluation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in carotid angioplasty and stenting

Michael Henry Wholey, Mark Henry Wholey, Gustave Eles, Boulis Toursakissian, Steven Bailey, Chester Jarmolowski, Walter A. Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Purpose: To review the immediate neurological and bleeding complications associated with the use of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing extracranial carotid artery stent placement. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 550 patients (321 men; mean age 71.1 years, range 28-91) who underwent carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were given prophylactically along with heparin to 216 patients, whose outcomes were compared to a control group of 334 patients who received intravenous heparin alone. Primary endpoints were the immediate and 30-day neurological complications, including transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), minor and major strokes, and neurologically-related deaths. The secondary endpoint was any abnormal bleeding. Results: The all stroke/neurological death rate in 216 patients treated with heparin and GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors was 6.0% (13 events) compared 2.4% (8 events) in the 334 patients in the heparin-only control group (p=0.0430). Two of the 4 neurologically-related deaths in the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor group resulted from intracranial hemorrhages; there were no intracranial hemorrhages in the heparin-only group. There was 1 episode of extracranial bleeding in the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor group treated with embolization. The incidences of significant puncture-site bleeding requiring transfusion were similar in the groups. Conclusions: Neurological complications following percutaneous carotid artery interventions have been relatively few. The neurological sequelae in carotid stent patients receiving glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were more numerous and consequential, which suggests that the use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in carotid stenting should be discouraged.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-41
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Endovascular Therapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Bleeding
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Complications
  • Glycoprotein IIb/ IIIa inhibitors
  • Heparin
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Mortality
  • Stenosis
  • Stent
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in carotid angioplasty and stenting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this