Evaluating and understanding combination therapy decision drivers for the treatment of overactive bladder in the United States

Stephen R. Kraus, Junlong Li, Rita M. Kristy, Amy Lockefeer, Hongbo Yang, Mo Zhou, David R. Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To understand factors guiding overactive bladder (OAB) therapy selection and experience with combination therapy (antimuscarinics and beta-3 agonists). Methods: Cross-sectional surveys of OAB patients and OAB-treating physicians in the USA were conducted. Patients receiving monotherapy with antimuscarinics were categorized by OAB treatment history: monotherapy only; third-line procedures (e.g., onabotulinumtoxinA injections) and combination therapy; third-line therapy only; and combination therapy only. The patient survey assessed therapy choice drivers and barriers, treatment satisfaction and sociodemographic/clinical characteristics. The physician survey assessed drivers of and barriers to OAB treatment choices. Results: Of 200 patients, 86.5% reported involvement in treatment decision-making; doctor’s recommendation was the most frequently considered factor (84.4%). Most patients (71%) were unaware of combination therapy. The primary reason why those patients aware of combination therapy had not used it (N = 43/200; 21%) was physician recommendation of other treatments (69.8%). For physicians (N = 50), the most frequently considered factors when prescribing OAB treatment were effectiveness (92.0%) and side effects (84.0%); 70% prescribed combination therapy, primarily for symptom severity (82.9%). The main reasons for not prescribing combination therapy were cost/insurance coverage (80%) and lack of information (53.3%). Conclusions: Shared decision-making guided treatment decisions; the main considerations were treatment safety and efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Overactive bladder
  • combination therapy
  • cross-sectional
  • decision-making
  • patient-reported outcome
  • survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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