Epidemiology of heart failure stages in middle-aged black people in the community: Prevalence and prognosis in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Ramachandran S. Vasan, Solomon K. Musani, Kunihiro Matsushita, Walter Beard, Olushola B. Obafemi, Kenneth R. Butler, Patricia P. Chang, Thomas H. Mosley, Ervin Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Black individuals have a higher burden of risk factors for heart failure (HF) and subclinical left ventricular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 1871 Black participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort who attended a routine examination (1993–1996, median age 58 years) when they underwent echocardiography. We estimated the prevalences of 4 HF stages: (1) Stage 0: no risk factors; (2) Stage A: presence of HF risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease without clinical myocardial infarction), no cardiac structural/ functional abnormality; (3) Stage B: presence of prior myocardial infarction, systolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, regional wall motion abnormality, or left ventricular enlargement; and (4) Stage C/D: prevalent HF. We assessed the incidence of clinical HF, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, and all-cause mortality on follow-up according to HF stage. The prevalence of HF Stages 0, A, B, and C/D were 3.8%, 20.6%, 67.0%, and 8.6%, respectively, at baseline. On follow-up (median 19.0 years), 309 participants developed overt HF, 390 incurred new-onset cardiovascular disease events, and 651 individuals died. Incidence rates per 1000 person-years for overt HF, cardiovascular disease events, and death, respectively, were Stage 0, 2.4, 0.8, and 7.6; Stage A, 7.4, 9.7, and 13.5; Stage B 13.6, 15.9, and 22.0. Stage B HF was associated with a 1.5-to 2-fold increased adjusted risk of HF, cardiovascular disease events and death compared with Stages 0/A. CONCLUSIONS: In our large community-based sample of Black individuals, we observed a strikingly high prevalence of Stage B HF in middle age that was a marker of high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere016524
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Black participants
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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