Epidemiology of age-, sex-, and race-specific hospitalizations for abdominal aortic aneurysms highlights gaps in current screening recommendations

Shimena R. Li, Katherine M. Reitz, Jason Kennedy, Lucine Gabriel, Amanda R. Phillips, Paula K. Shireman, Mohammad H. Eslami, Edith Tzeng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The detection and elective repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) guided by known risk-factor specific screening decrease AAA-related mortality. However, minimal epidemiologic data exist for AAA in female persons and racial minority groups. We established the contemporary risk of US AAA hospitalization across age, sex, and race. Methods: National Inpatient Sample and US Census (2012-2018) data were used to quantify age-, sex-, and race-specific incidences and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of AAA hospitalizations (≥18 years), associated risk factors, and in-hospital mortality. Interaction terms evaluated subgroups. Results: Among 1,728,374,183 US residents during the study period (51.3% female; 78.4% White, 12.7% Black, 5.7% Asian), 211,501,703 were hospitalized (aged 57.56 ± 0.04 years; 58.4% female; 64.9% White, 14.3% Black, 2.5% Asian) of which 291,850 were for AAA (aged 73.17 ± 0.04 years; 22.6% female; 81.8% White, 5.6% Black, 1.6% Asian). An estimated 15.2 (95% CI, 15.1-15.3) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.7-1.7) hospitalizations per 100,000 residents were for intact AAA (iAAA) and ruptured AAA (rAAA) AAA, respectively. In addition, 16.2% of iAAA (83.8% male; 79.1% White) and 18.4% of rAAA (86.4% male; 75.0% White) hospitalizations occurred in patients less than 65 years of age. For iAAA, female sex (aOR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.27-0.28) compared with male sex and both Black (0.47; 95% CI, 0.45-0.49) and Asian (0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93) persons compared with White persons had a reduced aOR for hospitalization. For rAAA, the reduced aOR persisted for female sex (0.33; 95% CI, 0.32-0.36) and for Black persons (0.52; 95% CI, 0.46-0.58). Although female sex demonstrated an overall decreased odds of AAA hospitalization, female persons who were older, Black, or had peripheral vascular disease (Pinteractions < .001) had a relative increase in AAA hospitalization aOR. Female sex (aOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.38-1.70), but not Black or Asian race, was associated with increased mortality which was more pronounced for iAAA (1.93; 95% CI, 1.66-2.25) than rAAA (1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.48]; Pinteraction < .001). Conclusions: We confirmed a substantially decreased adjusted risk of AAA hospitalization for females and racial minority groups; however, aging and comorbid peripheral vascular disease decreased these differences. The disparate risk of AAA hospitalization by sex and race highlights the importance of inclusivity in future AAA studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Epidemiology
  • Race
  • Sex
  • Social determinants of health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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