Endotracheal Administered Epinephrine Is Effective in Return of Spontaneous Circulation Within a Pediatric Swine Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

Young J. Yauger, Denise M. Beaumont, Kerianne Brady, Steven G. Schauer, Joseph O'Sullivan, Julie G. Hensler, Don Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Early administration of epinephrine increases the incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improves outcomes among pediatric cardiac arrest victims. Rapid endotracheal (ET) intubation can facilitate early administration of epinephrine to pediatric victims. To date, no studies have evaluated the use of ETepinephrine in a pediatric hypovolemic cardiac arrest model to determine the incidence of ROSC. Methods: This prospective, experimental study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and/or incidence of ROSC following ET administered epinephrine and compared it to these experimental groups: intravenous (IV) administered epinephrine, cardiopulmonary resuscitation only (CPR), and CPR + defibrillation (CPR + Defib). Results: Endotracheal administered epinephrine, at the Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) recommended dose, was not significantly different than IV administered epinephrine in maximum plasma concentrations, time to maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, or ROSC, or mean plasma concentrations at various time points (P > 0.05). The odds of ROSC in the ET groupwere 2.4 times greater than the IVgroup. The onset to ROSC in the ET group was significantly shorter than the IV group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: These data support that ETepinephrine administration remains an alternative to IVadministered epinephrine and faster at restoring ROSC among pediatric hypovolemic cardiac arrest victims in the acute setting when an endotracheal tube is present. Although further research is required to determine long-term outcomes of high-dose ET epinephrine administration, these data reinforce the therapeutic potential of ET administration of epinephrine to restore ROSC before IVaccess.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E187-E192
JournalPediatric Emergency Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Endotracheal
  • Epinephrine
  • Resuscitation
  • Return of spontaneous circulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Emergency Medicine


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