Enamel matrix derivative: Protein components and osteoinductive properties

Bradshaw M. Stout, Brian J. Alent, Peter Pedalino, Ryan Holbrook, Jelica Gluhak-Heinrich, Yong Cui, Marie A. Harris, Anja C. Gemperli, David L. Cochran, David E. Deas, Stephen E. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Although enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has demonstrated the ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, the specific elements within the EMD compound responsible for these effects remain unknown. Methods: Nine different protein pools from a commercially produced EMD were collected based on molecular weight. Six of these pools, along with the complete EMD unfractionated compound and positive and negative controls, were tested for their ability to induce bone formation in a calvarial induction assay. Immunocytochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 (phospho-SMAD), osterix, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) was carried out at selected time points. Finally, proteomic analysis was completed to determine the specific protein-peptide content of the various osteoinductive pools. Results: One of the lower-molecular-weight pools tested, pool 7, showed bone induction responses significantly greater than those of the other pools and the complete EMD compound and was concentration dependent. Dynamic bone formation rate analysis demonstrated that pool 7 was optimally active at the 5-to 10-mg concentration. It was demonstrated that EMD and pool 7 induced phospho-SMAD, osterix, and VEGF-A, which is indicative of increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Proteomic composition analysis demonstrated that pool 7 had the highest concentration of the biologically active amelogenin-leucine-rich amelogenin peptide and ameloblastin 17-kDa peptides. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that the low-molecular-weight protein pools (7 to 17 kDa) within EMD have greater osteoinductive potential than the commercially available complete EMD compound and that the mechanism of action, in part, is through increased BMP signaling and increased osterix and VEGF-A. With this information, selected components of EMD can now be formulated for optimal osteo-and angio-genesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e9-e17
JournalJournal of periodontology
Volume85
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2014

Keywords

  • Ameloblastin protein
  • Amelogenin
  • Enamel matrix proteins
  • Human
  • Osteogenesis
  • Proteomics
  • Tuftelin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

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