Empiric guideline-recommended weight-based vancomycin dosing and nephrotoxicity rates in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A retrospective cohort study

Ronald G. Hall, Kathleen A. Hazlewood, Sara D. Brouse, Christopher A. Giuliano, Krystal K. Haase, Chistopher R. Frei, Nicolas A. Forcade, Todd Bell, Roger J. Bedimo, Carlos A. Alvarez

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    Abstract

    Background: Previous studies have established a correlation between vancomycin troughs and nephrotoxicity. However, data are currently lacking regarding the effect of guideline-recommended weight-based dosing on nephrotoxicity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB).Methods: Adults who were at least 18 years of age with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and received of empiric vancomycin therapy for at least 48 hours (01/07/2002 and 30/06/2008) were included in this multicenter, retrospective cohort study. The association between guideline-recommended, weight-based vancomycin dosing (at least 15 mg/kg/dose) and nephrotoxicity (increase in serum creatinine (SCr) by more than 0.5 mg/dl or at least a 50% increase from baseline on at least two consecutive laboratory tests) was evaluated. Potential independent associations were evaluated using a multivariable general linear mixed-effect model.Results: Overall, 23% of patients developed nephrotoxicity. Thirty-four percent of the 337 patients who met study criteria received weight-based dosing. The cohort was composed of 69% males with a median age of 55 years. The most common sources of MRSAB included skin/soft tissue (32%), catheter-related bloodstream bacteremia (20%), pulmonary (18%). Eighty-six percent of patients received twice daily dosing. Similar rates of nephrotoxicity were observed regardless of the receipt of guideline-recommended dosing (22% vs. 24%, OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.53-1.56]). This finding was confirmed in the multivariable analysis (OR 1.52 [95% CI 0.75-3.08]). Independent predictors of nephrotoxicity were (OR, 95% CI) vancomycin duration of greater than 15 days (3.36, 1.79-6.34), weight over 100 kg (2.74, 1.27-5.91), Pitt bacteremia score of 4 or greater (2.73, 1.29-5.79), vancomycin trough higher than 20 mcg/ml (2.36, 1.07-5.20), and age over 52 years (2.10, 1.08-4.08).Conclusions: Over one out of five patients in this study developed nephrotoxicity while receiving vancomycin for MRSAB. The receipt of guideline-recommended, weight-based vancomycin was not an independent risk factor for the development of nephrotoxicity.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number12
    JournalBMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Volume14
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Feb 13 2013

    Keywords

    • Adverse events
    • Dosing
    • MRSA
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Obesity
    • Vancomycin
    • Weight

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pharmacology
    • Pharmacology (medical)

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