Emergency myelopoiesis contributes to immune cell exhaustion and pulmonary vascular remodelling

Chunhua Fu, Yuanqing Lu, Mason A. Williams, Mark L. Brantly, Corey E. Ventetuolo, Laurence M. Morel, Borna Mehrad, Edward W. Scott, Andrew J. Bryant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to chronic lung disease (World Health Organization Group 3 PH) is deadly, with lung transplant being the only available long-term treatment option. Myeloid-derived cells are known to affect progression of both pulmonary fibrosis and PH, although the mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of myeloid cell proliferation induced by emergency myelopoiesis on development of PH and therapy directed against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), expressed by myeloid cells in prevention of pulmonary vascular remodelling. Experimental Approach: LysM.Cre-DTR (“mDTR”) mice were injected with bleomycin (0.018 U·g−1, i.p.) while receiving either vehicle or diphtheria toxin (DT; 100 ng, i.p.) to induce severe PH. Approximately 4 weeks after initiation of bleomycin protocol, right ventricular pressure measurements were performed and tissue samples collected for histologic assessment. In a separate experiment, DT-treated mice were given anti-PD-L1 antibody (αPD-L1; 500 μg, i.p.) preventive treatment before bleomycin administration. Key Results: Mice undergoing induction of emergency myelopoiesis displayed more severe PH, right ventricular remodelling and pulmonary vascular muscularization compared to controls, without a change in lung fibrosis. This worsening of PH was associated with increased pulmonary myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), particularly polymorphonuclear MDSC (PMN-MDSC). Treatment with αPD-L1 normalized pulmonary pressures. PD-L1 expression was likewise found to be elevated on circulating PMN-MDSC from patients with interstitial lung disease and PH. Conclusions and Implications: PD-L1 is a viable therapeutic target in PH, acting through a signalling axis involving MDSC. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on Risk factors, comorbidities, and comedications in cardioprotection. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v178.1/issuetoc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-202
Number of pages16
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Volume178
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

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