Elevation of salivary antimicrobial proteins following HIV-1 infection

Jane C. Atkinson, Chih Ko Yeh, Frank G. Oppenheim, Debra Bermudez, Bruce J. Baum, Philip C. Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Thirty-seven HIV-1-positive patients contributed salivary samples from individual major salivary glands. Nineteen patients were unmedicated and asymptomatic, and 18 patients had developed signs of AIDS. Salivas from 15 healthy males served as controls. Levels of four salivary antimicrobial proteins (lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory IgA, and histatins) were determined, as well as total fluid output of the major salivary glands. Concentrations of all four salivary antimicrobial proteins were found to be increased in the stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva of all HIV-1-positive patients as well as the subset of unmediated HIV-l-positive patients. Those patients with evidence of oral candidiasis had the highest concentrations of lysozyme and histatins, potent antifungual proteins, in their saliva. Although the etiology of these protein increases is still unknown, these results further document salivary changes following HIV-1 infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV-1
  • Histatins
  • Lactoferrin
  • Lysozyme
  • Saliva
  • Secretory IgA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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