Eight week exposure to a high sugar high fat diet results in adiposity gain and alterations in metabolic biomarkers in baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.)

Paul B. Higgins, Raul A. Bastarrachea, Juan C. Lopez-Alvarenga, Maggie Garcia-Forey, J. Michael Proffitt, V. Saroja Voruganti, M. Elizabeth Tejero, Vicki Mattern, Karin Haack, Robert E. Shade, Shelley A. Cole, Anthony G. Comuzzie

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    28 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Background: Baboons (Papio hamadryas Sp.) develop features of the cardiometabolic syndrome and represent a clinically-relevant animal model in which to study the aetiology of the disorder. To further evaluate the baboon as a model for the study of the cardiometabolic syndrome, we developed a high sugar high fat diet and hypothesized that it could be used to induce adiposity gain and affect associated circulating biomarkers.Methods: We developed a diet enriched with monosaccharides and saturated fatty acids that was composed of solid and liquid energy sources. We provided a group of baboons (n = 9) ad libitum access to this diet for 8 weeks. Concurrently, a control group (n = 6) was maintained with ad libitum access to a low sugar low fat baseline diet and normal water for 8 weeks. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and circulating metabolic biomarkers were measured using standard methodology before and after the 8 week study period.Results: Neither body composition nor circulating biomarkers changed in the control group. Following the 8 weeks, the intervention group had a significant increase in fat mass (1.71 ± 0.98 vs. 3.23 ± 1.70 kg, p = 0.004), triglyceride (55 ± 13 vs. 109 ± 67 mg/dL, p = 0.006,), and leptin (1.19 ± 1.40 vs. 3.29 ± 2.32 ng/mL, p = 0.001) and a decline in adiponectin concentrations (33530 ± 9744 vs. 23330 ± 7863 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Percentage haemoglobin A1C (4.0 ± 0.3 vs. 6.0 ± 1.4, p = 0.002) also increased in the intervention group.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that when exposed to a high sugar high fat diet, young adult male baboons develop increased body fat and triglyceride concentrations, altered adipokine concentrations, and evidence of altered glucose metabolism. Our findings are in keeping with observations in humans and further demonstrate the potential utility of this highly clinically-relevant animal model for studying diet-induced metabolic dysregulation.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number71
    JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
    Volume9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Oct 29 2010

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Higgins, P. B., Bastarrachea, R. A., Lopez-Alvarenga, J. C., Garcia-Forey, M., Proffitt, J. M., Voruganti, V. S., Tejero, M. E., Mattern, V., Haack, K., Shade, R. E., Cole, S. A., & Comuzzie, A. G. (2010). Eight week exposure to a high sugar high fat diet results in adiposity gain and alterations in metabolic biomarkers in baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.). Cardiovascular Diabetology, 9, [71]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-9-71