Effects of hypergravity on statocyst development in embryonic Aplysia californica

Hugo A. Pedrozo, Michael L. Wiederhold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Aplysia californica is a marine gastropod mollusc with bilaterally paired statocysts as gravity-receptor organs. Data from three experiments in which embryonic Aplysia californica were exposed to 2 × g are discussed. The experimental groups were exposed to excess gravity until hatching (9-12 day), whereas control groups were maintained at normal gravity. Body diameter was measured before exposure to 2 × g. Statocyst, statolith and body diameter were each determined for samples of 20 embryos from each group on successive days. Exposure to excess gravity led to an increase in body size. Statocyst size was not affected by exposure to 2 × g. Statolith size decreased with treatment as indicated by smaller statolith-to-body ratios observed in the 2 × g group in all three experiments. Mean statolith diameter was significantly smaller for the 2 × g group in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Defective statocysts, characterized by very small or no statoliths, were found in the 2 × g group in Experiments 1 and 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-146
Number of pages10
JournalHearing Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Sep 1994


  • Aplysia californica
  • Gravity
  • Mineralization
  • Statocyst
  • Statolith

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems


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