Effects of clomiphene citrate and leuprolide acetate on luteal-phase hyperprolactinemia during ovarian stimulation with menopausal gonadotropins

Carolyn R. Kaplan, Mi Kyoung Koong, David L. Olive, Robert M. Riehl, William N. Burns, Terry R. Groff, Robert S. Schenken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Hyperprolactinemia, a known modulator of reproductive function, occurs commonly in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG). Clomiphene citrate (CC) and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa), when administered during the luteal phase, attenuate the hyperprolactinemic response to hMG. We asked whether follicular-phase administration of CC and GnRHa, as employed clinically in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer, would alter the incidence and severity of hMG-induced luteal-phase hyperprolactinemia. Seventy-five percent of all patients had at least one luteal prolactin level >25 ng/ml, and 40% had mean luteal-phase prolactin levels >25 ng/ml. The incidence of hyperprolactinemia was similar in pregnant and nonpregnant cycles. The incidence of hyperprolactinemia was similar for both the GnRH agonist-treated group and those given clomiphene citrate. The increase in mean luteal prolactin levels over the follicular-phase baseline level was significantly greater in the CC-treated group (P=0.03). This was due to the significant suppression of follicular-phase baseline prolactin levels in patients receiving CC. We conclude that neither CC nor GnRHa administration in the follicular phase prevents lutealphase hyperprolactinemia in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with hMG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-313
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 1991



  • clomiphene citrate
  • gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa)
  • hyperprolactinemia
  • ovarian stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Embryology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Developmental Biology

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