Material surfaces can directly influence cell response, ultimately affecting the rate and quality of new tissue formation. Initial events include oriented adsorption of molecules from the surrounding fluid, creating a conditioned interface to which the cell responds. Surface chemistry and energy determine the type and orientation of adsorbed molecules, which then directs cellular attachment. Focal attachments between the cells and substrate determine cell shape which, when transduced via the cytoskeleton to the nucleus, may result in expression of specific phenotypes. Osteoblasts and chondrocytes are sensitive to subtle differences in surface roughness and surface chemistry. Cellular response also depends on the local environment and state of maturation of responding cells. Titanium (Ti) is one of the most commonly used materials in bone. Morphologic and cell adhesion studies have provided information concerning the interface and initial interaction with Ti, while studies investigating the biochemical response of cells to Ti have lagged behind. The optimal surface characteristics necessary to predictably elicit good bone formation are still under investigation. In this paper, we review how surface characteristics affect cellular response to implant materials and discuss studies suggesting that cell maturation state plays a role in cellular response to Ti.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Cells and Materials|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1995|
- In vitro
ASJC Scopus subject areas