The effect of a rapid-acting sulphonylurea, glipizide, on the dose-response relationship between the β-cell response (insulin and C-peptide secretion) and the ambient plasma glucose concentration was examined in 12 healthy and 6 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. The subjects participated in two sets of experiments which were performed in random order: (A) four hyperglycaemic clamp studies, during which the plasma glucose concentration was raised for 120 min by 1 (only in healthy subjects), 3, 7, and 17 mmol/l; and (B) the same four hyperglycaemic clamp studies preceded by ingestion of 5 mg glipizide. All subjects participated in a further study, in which glipizide was ingested and the plasma glucose concentration was maintained at the basal level. In control subjects in the absence of glipizide, the firstphase plasma insulin response (0-10 min) increased progressively with increasing plasma glucose concentration up to 10 mmol/l, above which it tended to plateau. Glipizide augmented the first-phase insulin response without changing the slope of the regression line relating plasma insulin to glucose concentrations. The second-phase plasma insulin response (20-120 min) increased linearly with increasing hyperglycaemia (r=0.997). Glipizide alone increased the plasma insulin response by 180 pmol/l. A similar increase in plasma insulin response following glipizide was observed at each hyperglycaemic step, indicating that glipizide did not affect the sensitivity of the β-cell to glucose. First-phase insulin secretion was reduced in the type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, and was not influenced by glipizide. The dose-response curve relating second-phase insulin secretion to the ambient plasma glucose concentration was significantly (P<0.001) flatter in the diabetic patients than in the control subjects. Glipizide alone increased the plasma insulin response by 60 pmol/l without changing the slope of the dose-response curve. It is concluded that, in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects: (A) sulphonylurea augments glucose-stimulated second-phase insulin secretion without changing the sensitivity of the β-cell to glucose; (B) first-phase insulin secretion is reduced in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with fasting hyperglycaemia and is not influenced by sulphonylurea.
- Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism