Effect of endothelial differentiated adipose-derived stem cells on vascularity and osteogenesis in poly(D,L-Lactide) scaffolds in vivo

David E. Sahar, John A. Walker, Howard T. Wang, Stacy M. Stephenson, Amita R. Shah, Naveen K. Krishnegowda, Joseph C. Wenke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Prevascularization of engineered bony constructs can potentially improve in vivo viability. However, the effect of endothelial cells on osteogenesis is unknown when placed in poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) scaffolds alone. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to differentiate into both osteoblasts and endothelial cells by culture in specific media. We hypothesized that ASC-derived endothelial cells would improve vascularity with minimal contribution to bone formation when placed in scaffold alone. ASCs were successfully differentiated into endothelial cells (ASC-Endo) and osteoblasts (ASC-Osteo) using media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenic protein 2, respectively. Tissue-engineered constructs were created with PLA matrices containing no cells (control), undifferentiated ASCs (ASCs), osteogenic-differentiated ASCs (ASC-Osteo), or endothelial differentiated ASCs (ASC-Endo), and these constructs were evaluated in critical-size Lewis rat calvarial defect model (n = 34). Eight weeks after implantation, the bone volume and microvessel population of bony constructs were evaluated by micro-computed tomography analysis and histologic staining. Bone volumes for ASCs and ASC-Osteo constructs, 0.7 and 0.91 mm 3, respectively, were statistically greater than that for ASC-Endo, 0.28 mm 3 (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the PLA control (0.5 mm 3) and ASC-Endo (0.28 mm 3) constructs in bone formation. The percent area of microvessels within constructs was highest in the ASC-Endo group, although it did not reach statistical significance (0.065). Prevascularization of PLA scaffold with ASC-Endo cells will not increase bone formation by itself but may be used as a cell source for improving vascularization and potentially improving existing osteoblast function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)913-918
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2012


  • Endothelial cells
  • adult stem cells
  • angiogenesis
  • osteogenesis
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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